Clause  21:  main  power  in  connection  with  Ireland/Northern  Ireland   Protocol

Power  conferred  on:  A  Minister  of  the  Crown
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes  (main  power);  No  (definitional  power)
Parliamentary  Procedure:  Draft  affirmative  procedure  where  a  statutory  instrument  under   new  section  8C(1)  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  amends,  repeals  or  revokes  primary   legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation;  establishes  a  public  authority;  relates   to  a  fee  in  respect  of  a  function  exercisable  by  a  public  authority  in  the  UK;  creates,  or  widens   the  scope  of,  a  criminal  offence;  creates  or  amends  a  power  to  legislate;  or  facilitates  the   access  to  the  market  within  Great  Britain  of  qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods.  Otherwise   the  negative  procedure  applies.  Draft  affirmative  procedure  for  power  to  define  ‘qualifying   Northern  Ireland  goods’  under  new  section  8C(6).

Context  and  purpose

219.The  Protocol  on  Ireland/Northern  Ireland  (the  ‘Protocol’)  provides  arrangements  that seek  to  ensure  that  the  UK  (including  Northern  Ireland)  does  not  remain  in  a  customs union  with  the  European  Union.  The  Protocol  also  makes  arrangements  to  ensure  that there  are  no  checks  and  controls  conducted  at  or  near  the  border  between  Northern Ireland  and  Ireland,  as  well  as  providing  that  the  arrangements  contained  in  the Protocol  are  to  be  subject  to  democratic  consent  in  Northern  Ireland.

220.As  set  out  above,  the  rights  and  obligations  arising  under  the  Withdrawal  Agreement will  be  available  in  domestic  law  by  virtue  of  new  section  7A  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal) Act  2018  (inserted  by  clause  5  of  the  Bill).  This  includes  those  rights  and  obligations contained  within  the  Protocol  and  its  Annexes,  meaning  that  some  provisions  in  the Protocol  will  not  require  any  further  domestic  legislation.  However,  there  will  be  a need  to  set  out  some  further  details  in  domestic  legislation  to  ensure  that  the  Protocol is  given  full  effect  in  the  UK  legal  system.

221.For  example,  the  obligation  on  the  UK,  under  Article  2(1)  of  the  Protocol,  to  ensure that  no  diminution  of  the  rights,  safeguards  and  equality  of  opportunity,  as  set  out  in the  relevant  Chapter  of  the  Belfast  (Good  Friday)  Agreement  1998,  results  from  the UK’s  withdrawal  from  the  EU,  will  be  given  effect  in  domestic  law  through  new   section  7A  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018.  However,  the  obligation  to  ensure  that   there  is  no  diminution  of  rights  etc.  includes  the  area  of  protection  against   discrimination  as  enshrined  in  the  EU  directives  listed  in  Annex  1  of  the  Protocol  and,   by  virtue  of  Article  13(3)  of  the  Protocol,  the  reference  to  these  directives  shall  be  read   as  referring  to  them  as  amended  or  replaced.  The  effect  of  this  is  that  domestic   legislation  may  need  to  be  amended  as  the  directives  listed  in  Annex  1  develop.

222.Furthermore,  the  UK  will  be  required  to  set  up  the  framework  necessary  to  give  effect to  the  obligations  contained  in  the  Protocol.  This  will  require  amendments  to  domestic legislation  and  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation  in  the  areas  covered  by  the Protocol.

223.As  mentioned  above,  pursuant  to  Article  13(3)  of  the  Protocol,  the  implementation  of the  Protocol  necessitates  more  than  just  preserving  the  status  quo.  Further  action  will be  required  domestically  to  take  account  of  the  developments  in  relevant  areas  of  EU law  listed  in  the  Protocol  Annexes.

224.Clause  21  (which  inserts  a  new  section  8C  into  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018)  provides Ministers  of  the  Crown  with  the  power  to  make  provision  for  the  purposes  of implementing  the  Protocol.

225.Subsection  (1)  of  new  section  8C  provides  Ministers  with  the  power  to  make  provision which  they  consider  is  appropriate  for  the  purposes  of  implementing  the  Protocol.  This includes  supplementing  the  effect  of  new  section  7A  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018 (inserted  by  clause  5  of  the  Bill)  in  relation  to  the  Protocol,  or  dealing  with  matters arising  out  of,  or  related  to,  the  Protocol.  This  will  be  used  where  further  provision  is required  to  give  effect  to  the  Protocol,  including  where  amendments  to  domestic legislation  are  required  as  a  result  of  developments  in  the  EU  law  which  is  listed  in  the Annexes  to  the  Protocol.  This  includes  giving  effect  to  amendments  to  the  Withdrawal Agreement  adopted  by  the  Joint  Committee  falling  within  the  scope  of  the  particular matters  that  this  power  is  intended  to  address.

226.Subsection  (2)  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  are  capable  of  doing anything  an  Act  of  Parliament  can  do  (including  modifying  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act 2018).

227.Subsection  (3)  clarifies  that  the  power  may  be  used  to  make  provision  facilitating  the access  to  the  market  within  Great  Britain  of  qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods.

228.Subsection  (4)  clarifies  that  regulations  made  in  connection  with  subsection  (3)  may, among  other  things,  provide  for  the  recognition  within  Great  Britain  of  technical regulations,  assessments,  registrations,  certificates,  approvals  and  authorisations issued  by  the  authorities  of  a  Member  State  or  bodies  established  in  a  Member  State  in respect  of  qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods.

229.Subsection  (5)  clarifies  that  the  power  can  be  used  to  restate  elements  of  the  Protocol that  automatically  become  domestic  law  via  new  section  7A  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal) Act  2018  (inserted  by  clause  5  of  the  Bill).  This  type  of  restatement  can  occur  where  it would  be  helpful  to  provide  clarity  or  to  make  the  law  more  accessible.

230.Subsection  (6)  places  a  duty  on  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  to  exercise  the  power  to  define, in  regulations,  the  term  ‘qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods’  for  the  purposes  of  the  EU (Withdrawal)  Act  2018.

231.Subsection  (7)  defines  the  Protocol  for  the  purposes  of  new  section  8C  of  the  EU (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  as  including  any  other  provision  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement that  relates  to  the  Protocol,  and  any  provisions  of  EU  law  applied  by,  or  referred  to  in, the  Protocol,  but  not  the  second  sentence  of  Article  11(1)  of  the  Protocol  (which provides  that  the  United  Kingdom  and  Ireland  may  continue  to  make  new arrangements  that  build  on  the  provisions  of  the  Belfast  (Good  Friday)  Agreement 1998  in  other  areas  of  North-­‐‑South  cooperation  on  the  island  of  Ireland).

232.This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  amendments  to  the  Withdrawal Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  adopted  by  the  Joint Committees  falling  within  the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is intended  to  address.

233.The  UK  Government  will  not  normally  use  the  power  to  amend  domestic  legislation  in areas  of  devolved  competence  without  the  agreement  of  the  relevant  devolved administration.

Justification  for  taking  the  power

234.As  set  out  above,  some  parts  of  the  Protocol  will  flow  into  domestic  law  and  have direct  effect  by  virtue  of  new  section  7A  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  (inserted  by clause  5  of  the  Bill),  without  the  need  for  further  implementation.  The  power  in  new section  8C(1)  is  required  to  give  effect  to  parts  of  the  Protocol  which  require  further implementation.

235.The  power  in  new  section  8C(1)  is  a  so  called  ‘Henry  VIII’  power  because  it  will  need to  amend  primary  legislation,  as  well  as  provide  for  the  practical  operation  of  the framework  required  to  give  effect  to  the  Protocol.

236.Furthermore,  that  power  will  be  required  to  implement  any  additions  or  amendments to  the  Protocol  and  its  Annexes  ensuring  continued  alignment  with  relevant  EU  law where  necessary.  Amendments  to  domestic  legislation  may  be  required,  as  the Annexes  are  updated,  or  the  EU  law  listed  within  it  is  amended.

237.The  power  in  8C(1)  is  also  capable  of  amending  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018.  This  is required  in  order  to  ensure  that  the  power  can  be  used  to  explain  the  relationship between  the  snapshot  of  EU  law  which  is  domesticated  at  the  end  of  the Implementation  Period  and  the  EU  law  that  applies  in  Northern  Ireland  as  a  result  of the  provisions  of  the  Protocol  coming  into  effect  (where  Northern  Ireland  will  be required  to  align  with  EU  law  in  certain  areas).  For  example,  it  may  be  necessary  to carve  out  exceptions  to  the  snapshot  at  the  end  of  the  Implementation  Period  in  order to  ensure  that  the  Protocol  and  the  domestic  statute  book  operate  effectively.

238.The  power  in  new  section  8C(1)  is  nevertheless  naturally  constrained  to  the  extent  that a  Minister  of  the  Crown  may  only  use  it  to  make  regulations  in  connection  with  the Protocol.

239.The  power  in  new  section  8C(6)  is  a  limited  power  which  can  only  be  used  by  a Minister  of  the  Crown  to  make  regulations  to  define  ‘qualifying  Northern  Ireland goods’  for  the  purposes  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018.  It  is  required  to  define  that expression  for  the  purposes  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  (into  which  this  section will  be  inserted)  as  this  expression  does  not  currently  have  a  statutory  definition.

Justification  for  procedure

240.Where  the  power  in  new  section  8C(1)  is  used  to  amend,  repeal  or  revoke  primary legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the  draft  affirmative  procedure will  apply  so  that  Parliament  will  be  required  to  actively  approve  any  changes.  The draft  affirmative  procedure  will  also  apply  where  the  power  is  used  to  establish  a public  authority;  to  create,  or  widen  the  scope  of,  a  criminal  offence;  create  or  amend  a power  to  legislate;  in  relation  to  a  fee  in  respect  of  a  function  exercisable  by  a  public authority  in  the  UK;  or  to  facilitate  access  to  the  market  within  Great  Britain  of qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods.

241.Otherwise,  where  the  power  in  new  section  8C(1)  is  used,  the  negative  resolution procedure  will  apply.  This  is  because  many  of  the  anticipated  modifications  will largely  consist  of  amendments  to  secondary  legislation  which  are  required  as  a  result   of  developments  in  the  EU  law  that  is  referenced  in  the  Protocol.
242.The  power  to  define  ‘qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods’  at  new  section  8C(6)  is subject  to  the  affirmative  procedure  to  provide  appropriate  scrutiny  of  the  proposed legislation.

Clause  22:  powers  corresponding  to  section  21  involving  devolved   authorities

Power  conferred  on:  A  devolved  authority  or  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  acting  jointly  with  a   devolved  authority
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes
Parliamentary  Procedure:  Draft  affirmative  procedure  where  a  statutory  instrument  amends,   repeals  or  revokes  primary  legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation;  establishes   a  public  authority;  relates  to  a  fee  in  respect  of  a  function  exercisable  by  a  public  authority  in   the  UK;  creates,  or  widens  the  scope  of,  a  criminal  offence;  creates  or  amends  a  power  to   legislate  or  to  facilitate  access  to  the  market  within  Great  Britain  of  qualifying  Northern   Ireland  goods.  Otherwise  the  negative  procedure  applies.

Context  and  purpose

243.This  clause,  which  inserts  a  new  part  into  Schedule  2  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018, provides  a  corresponding  power  to  that  at  clause  21  for  devolved  authorities  to  make regulations  to  implement  the  Protocol  in  areas  of  devolved  competence.  This  power will  be  inserted  into  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  after  Part  1B  of  Schedule  2  as  Part 1C,  paragraph  11M.

244.Sub-­‐‑paragraph  (1)  provides  devolved  authorities  with  the  power  to  make  provision which  they  consider  is  appropriate  for  the  purposes  of  implementing  the  Protocol.  This includes  supplementing  the  effect  of  new  section  7A  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018 in  relation  to  the  Protocol,  or  dealing  with  matters  arising  out  of,  or  related  to,  the Protocol.  This  includes  giving  effect  to  amendments  to  the  Withdrawal  Agreement adopted  by  the  Joint  Committee  falling  within  the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that this  power  is  intended  to  address.

245.Sub-­‐‑paragraph  (2)  makes  provision  for  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  acting  jointly  with  a devolved  authority  to  make  the  same  provision  as  provided  for  at  sub-­‐‑paragraph  (1).

246.Sub-­‐‑paragraph  (3)  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  are  capable  of doing  anything  an  Act  of  Parliament  can  do.

247.Sub-­‐‑paragraph  (4)  clarifies  that  the  power  may  be  used  to  make  provision  facilitating the  access  to  the  market  within  Great  Britain  of  qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods.

248.Sub-­‐‑paragraph  (5)  clarifies  that  regulations  made  in  connection  with  subparagraph  (4) may,  among  other  things,  provide  for  the  recognition  within  Great  Britain  of  technical regulations,  assessments,  registrations,  certificates,  approvals  and  authorisations issued  by  the  authorities  of  a  Member  State  or  bodies  established  in  a  Member  State  in respect  of  qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods.

249.Sub-­‐‑paragraph  (6)  clarifies  that  the  power  can  be  used  to  restate  elements  of  the Protocol  that  automatically  become  domestic  law  via  new  section  7A  of  the  EU (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  (inserted  by  clause  5  of  the  Bill).  This  type  of  restatement  can occur  where  it  would  be  helpful  to  provide  clarity  or  to  make  the  law  more  accessible.

250.Sub-­‐‑paragraph  (7)  makes  the  use  of  this  power  subject  to  the  provisions  of  paragraph 11N  (restricting  the  power  to  being  exercisable  only  in  areas  of  devolved  competence) and  paragraph  11O  (applying  paragraphs  5  to  7  of  the  Schedule,  concerning  certain requirements  for  consent,  joint  exercise  or  consultation,  to  this  power).

251.Sub-­‐‑paragraph  (8)  defines  the  Protocol  as  including  any  other  provision  of  the Withdrawal  Agreement  that  relates  to  the  Protocol,  and  any  provisions  of  EU  law applied  by  or  referred  to  in  the  Protocol,  but  not  the  second  sentence  of  Article  11(1)  of the  Protocol  (which  provides  that  the  United  Kingdom  and  Ireland  may  continue  to make  new  arrangements  that  build  on  the  provisions  of  the  Belfast  (Good  Friday) Agreement  1998  in  other  areas  of  North-­‐‑South  cooperation  on  the  island  of  Ireland).

252.This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  amendments  to  the  Withdrawal Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  adopted  by  the  Joint Committees  falling  within  the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is intended  to  address.

253.Paragraph  11N  confirms  that  a  devolved  authority  acting  alone  can  only  make provision  under  this  power  if  the  provision  is  within  its  devolved  competence,  as defined  in  paragraphs  11P  to  11R.

254.The  restriction  applied  to  the  power  regarding  the  devolved  settlements  has  been applied  following  engagement  with  the  Scottish  and  Welsh  Governments.
Justification  for  taking  the  power
255.The  power  is  required  to  enable  devolved  authorities  to  make  regulations  for  the purpose  of  implementing  the  Protocol  and  supplementing  the  effect  of  new  section  7A of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  (inserted  by  clause  5  of  the  Bill)  in  areas  of  devolved competence.  To  do  otherwise  would  prevent  the  devolved  authorities  from  being  able to  make  the  required  provision  falling  within  their  areas  of  competence  to  implement   the  Protocol.

Justification  for  procedure

256.Where  the  power  at  new  paragraph  11M  is  used  to  modify  primary  legislation  or retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the  draft  affirmative  procedure  will  apply  to provide  appropriate  scrutiny  of  the  proposed  legislation.  For  the  same  reason,  the draft  affirmative  procedure  will  also  apply  where  the  power  is  used  to  establish  a public  authority;  to  create,  or  widen  the  scope  of,  a  criminal  offence;  create  or  amend  a power  to  legislate;  in  relation  to  a  fee  in  respect  of  a  function  exercisable  by  a  public authority  in  the  UK;  or  to  facilitate  access  to  the  market  within  Great  Britain  of qualifying  Northern  Ireland  goods.  The  approach  to  the  procedure  attached  to  powers contained  in  the  Bill  which  are  conferred  on  the  devolved  authorities  has  been discussed  in  the  wider  context  of  the  Bill  with  the  devolved  administrations.

257.Otherwise,  where  the  power  at  new  paragraph  11M  is  used,  the  negative  resolution procedure  will  apply.  This  is  because  many  of  the  anticipated  modifications  will largely  consist  of  amendments  to  secondary  legislation  which  are  required  as  a  result of  developments  in  the  EU  law  that  is  referenced  in  the  Protocol.

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