Chapter one: General provisions

Article 1.1: Principles and objectives

1. The Parties recognise that trade and investment between the Union and the United Kingdom under the terms set out in this Agreement require conditions that ensure a level playing field for open and fair competition between the Parties and that ensure that trade and investment take place in a manner conducive to sustainable development.

2. The Parties recognise that sustainable development encompasses economic development, social development and environmental protection, all three being interdependent and mutually reinforcing, and affirm their commitment to promote the development of international trade and investment in a way that contributes to the objective of sustainable development.

3. Each Party reaffirms its ambition of achieving economy-wide climate neutrality by 2050.

4. The Parties affirm their common understanding that their economic relationship can only deliver benefits in a mutually satisfactory way if the commitments relating to a level playing field for open and fair competition stand the test of time, by preventing distortions of trade or investment, and by contributing to sustainable development. However the Parties recognise that the purpose of this Title is not to harmonise the standards of the Parties. The Parties are determined to maintain and improve their respective high standards in the areas covered by this Title.

Article 1.2: Right to regulate, precautionary approach52 and scientific and technical information

1. The Parties affirm the right of each Party to set its policies and priorities in the areas covered by this Title, to determine the levels of protection it deems appropriate and to adopt or modify its law and policies in a manner consistent with each Party’s international commitments, including its commitments under this Title.

2. The Parties acknowledge that, in accordance with the precautionary approach, where there are reasonable grounds for concern that there are potential threats of serious or irreversible damage to the environment or human health, the lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for preventing a Party from adopting appropriate measures to prevent such damage.

3. When preparing or implementing measures aimed at protecting the environment or labour conditions that may affect trade or investment, each Party shall take into account relevant, available scientific and technical information, international standards, guidelines and recommendations.

Article 1.3 Dispute settlement

Title I [Dispute settlement] of Part Six [Dispute settlement and horizontal provisions] does not apply to this Chapter, except for Article 1.2(2) [Right to regulate, precautionary approach and scientific and technical information]. Articles 9.1 [Consultations] and 9.2 [Panel of experts] apply to Article 1.1(3) [Principles and objectives].

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