Overview of the Act
- The purpose of the Immigration and Social Security Co-ordination (EU Withdrawal) Act 2020 (“the Act”) is to end free movement of persons in UK law and make European Union (EU), other European Economic Area (EEA) and Swiss citizens, and their family members, subject to UK immigration controls. The Act ends the EU’s rules on free movement that are retained in UK law by the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 (“EUWA 2018”), as amended by the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020 (“EUWAA 2020”) and repeals section 7 of the Immigration Act 1988, which exempts EU citizens from requiring leave to enter or remain in the UK. At the end of the transition period, 31 December 2020, citizens of the EU, the EEA EFTA states of Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein, and Switzerland, and their family members, will require permission to enter and remain in the UK under the Immigration Act 19711. The Act protects the immigration status of Irish citizens once free movement ends. It also contains provision for the Government (and/or, where appropriate, a Northern Ireland department) to amend retained direct EU legislation relating to the social security co-ordination regime, which is retained in UK law by the EUWA 2018.
- EU, other EEA, EFTA and Swiss citizens are collectively referred to as “EEA citizens” in these Notes for brevity, others are referred to as “non-EEA citizens”. Unless the context requires otherwise, and/or it is stated otherwise, references to “EEA citizens” in these Notes exclude Irish
- The Act was first introduced in the Commons in the previous Parliament where, in the 2017-2019 session, it reached Report stage after completing a Public Bill Committee. That Bill fell when Parliament was prorogued before the December 2019 General Election. On re-introduction there had been no substantial changes to the content of the Act since it was previously considered in the last Parliament. The only changes made were minor drafting clarifications in places, and updates to the list of retained EU law to be repealed to avoid duplication of changes already made through the Immigration, Nationality and Asylum (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 (S.I. 2019/745) which come into force on 31 December 2020. On 30 June 2020, the House of Commons amended the Act so as to not engage the legislative consent process in the Scottish Parliament, following confirmation that the Scottish Government would not bring forward a legislative consent motion in respect of the social security co-ordination provisions in the Act in the Scottish
- The measures in the Act include:
- repealing the main retained EU law relating to free movement and bringing EEA citizens and their family members under UK immigration control to enable the introduction of the global points-based immigration system;
- protecting the status of Irish citizens in UK immigration law once their EU free movement rights end;
- a review of legal routes from the EU and family reunion for protection claimants, including a commitment for the Secretary of State to lay a statement before Parliament within three months following the passing of this Act and to publish a report on the outcome of the review;
- a power to amend, by regulations, legislation in consequence of, or in connection with, the ending of free This will enable the alignment of treatment for EEA and non-EEA citizens as part of the global points-based system, subject to saving certain provisions where appropriate and in accordance with the terms of the UK’s withdrawal from the EU; and
- powers to amend, by regulations, retained EU law governing social security co- ordination, enabling policy changes to be delivered following the end of the transition period, and depending on the outcome of negotiations with the EU on the future relationship.
- There are currently two immigration systems in the UK: one governing the immigration arrangements for EEA citizens and their family members and one governing the arrangements for non-EEA Although the UK is no longer a member of the EU, the EU’s rules on free movement of persons will remain in force until the end of the transition period (31 December 2020) and would thereafter until the retained EU law on free movement is repealed.
- The movement of people between EEA member states (EU member states and Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein) is governed primarily by the EU Free Movement Directive 2004/38/EC. This sets out the rights of EEA citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within these territories. The Directive is primarily implemented in UK law through the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2016 (“EEA Regulations”). The EEA Regulations also extend to citizens of Switzerland and their family members whose free movement rights are governed by the EU/Swiss Agreement on the Free Movement of As the EEA Regulations extend to citizens of the EEA and Switzerland, measures in Part 1 of the Act will extend to these nationalities as well, except section 2 which relates only to Irish citizens.
- Non-EEA citizens (other than those who are family members of EEA citizens) require permission to enter and stay in the UK under the Immigration Act 1971 (“the 1971 Act”). This permission is given, or refused, on a case-by-case basis according to the UK Immigration Rules. The detailed requirements a person must meet to be granted leave to enter and remain are set out in the Immigration Rules, which are laid before Parliament under the 1971 Act.
- Following the UK’s exit from the EU on 31 January 2020, the free movement of people continues to apply in UK law by virtue of the EUWA 2018, as amended by the EUWAA 2020, until the end of the transition period. This Act repeals free movement legislation at the end of the transition period so that from 2021, EEA citizens and their family members who come to the UK after that date will be subject to UK immigration laws and will be required to have permission to enter and remain under the 1971 Act.
- The Government has legislated to protect resident EEA citizens and their family members through the EUWAA 2020, which protects the residence rights of EEA citizens and their family members who are resident in the UK by the end of the transition The Government fully opened the EU Settlement Scheme (“EUSS”) to all EEA citizens and their family members on 30 March 2019. The Scheme is set out in the Immigration Rules to enable EEA citizens and their family members to apply for UK immigration status, so their current rights continue, and their status is clear when the new global points-based immigration system begins. The Immigration (Citizens’ Rights Appeals) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020, made under the EUWAA 2020, provide individuals who apply under the EUSS or for an EUSS family permit or travel permit, after 31 January 2020, with a right of appeal against decisions affecting their entitlement to enter and remain in the UK under the EUSS, and against decisions in relation to applications for EUSS family permits or travel permits.
- Those individuals who have a right to apply under the EUSS will have until 30 June 2021 to do so, provided they arrived in the UK by the end of 2020. This period of six months between the end of the transition period (31 December 2020) and 30 June 2021 is referred to as ‘the grace period’ and is a requirement of Articles 18(1)(b) and 18(2) of the UK-EU Withdrawal Agreement (and equivalent provisions in the EEA EFTA and Swiss citizens’ rights agreements). The Citizens’ Rights (Application Deadline and Temporary Protection) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020 (S.I. 2020/1209) protects EEA citizens and their family members residing in accordance with the EEA Regulations by saving their existing rights of residence, entry and exit until then. These savings also extend to those within that group who have pending applications to the scheme and unresolved appeals after the deadline for applications. The Government has also made the Citizens’ Rights (Frontier Workers) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020 (S.I. 2020/1213) to ensure individuals who are in the UK as frontier workers at the end of the transition period can continue working in and travelling to the UK from January 2021 onwards. Frontier workers are individuals who are resident outside the UK, but employed or self-employed in the UK.
- The Government set out in its manifesto in 2019 that once free movement ends, it will deliver a new global points-based immigration system to attract the brightest and best talent from around the world. The Government commissioned advice from the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) on a points-based immigration system as well as on salary thresholds in the immigration system. The MAC published its report on both issues on 28 January 2020. The Government published its policy statement “The UK’s Points-Based Immigration System” on 19 February 2020 setting out further information on the new immigration system for EEA and non-EEA citizens. The future requirements which will apply to EEA citizens wishing to come to the UK from January 2021 (and who were not resident in the UK prior to that) will be set out in the Immigration Rules as is the case now for non-EEA citizens.
- The Act clarifies the status of Irish citizens in the UK once their EU free movement rights end. Since the 1920s British and Irish citizens have enjoyed a unique status in each other’s State, distinct from that later enjoyed as a consequence of EU citizenship. Section 2(1) of the Ireland Act 1949 declares that “notwithstanding that the Republic of Ireland is not part of His Majesty’s dominions; the Republic of Ireland is not a foreign country for the purposes of any law in force in any part of the UK”. The fundamental provisions for the immigration status of Irish citizens in UK domestic law are provided for in the Immigration Act 1971; however these provisions only cover Irish citizens who enter the UK from within the Common Travel Area (CTA). Irish citizens travelling from outside the CTA currently enter under the Free Movement Directive 2004/38/EC. The Act will address this disparity and protect the status of Irish citizens; confirming their right to enter and remain without permission when free movement rights end, irrespective of from where they entered the UK, unless they are subject to a deportation order, exclusion decision or international travel ban.
- The status for Irish citizens in the Act supports the wider reciprocal rights enjoyed by Irish citizens when in the UK, mirrored by equivalent provision in Ireland for the treatment of British citizens who are resident The British Nationality Act 1948 and the Ireland Act 1949, as well as the Common Travel Area (CTA) legislation in the Immigration Act 1971, provide the legal basis for the rights of Irish citizens in the UK, with subsequent legislation and bilateral agreements also giving effect to these reciprocal arrangements. As a result of the historic arrangements between the UK and Ireland these rights include, in addition to the right to enter and reside as provided for by the Act: the right to work and study; access to social welfare entitlements and benefits; access to health services; and voting rights. The UK Government and the Government of Ireland signed a Memorandum of Understanding on 8 May 2019 which reaffirmed both Governments’ commitment to the CTA and to maintaining the associated rights and privileges of Irish and British citizens under this longstanding reciprocal arrangement. This Act does not amend or otherwise modify those historical pieces of legislation; it sets out the immigration status upon which some of these other rights depend.
- The Act also includes provision on social security co-ordination. The EU Social Security Co- ordination Regulations (“SSC Regulations”), as listed in section 6(2) co-ordinate access to social security for individuals moving between EEA States (and Switzerland).
- The SSC Regulations provide for a reciprocal framework and apply to EEA and UK citizens in the UK and in the EEA (respectively) and to some non-EEA citizens. Amongst other things, the SSC Regulations determine which member state’s social security legislation applies, ensure an individual is only subject to a single member state’s legislation at any one time, and determine where contributions are due and which state is responsible for payment of certain types of benefit. The SSC Regulations provide for member states to consider periods of work, insurance or residence in another member state when determining entitlement to benefits, which is known as “aggregation”. The SSC Regulations also enable individuals, in certain circumstances, to receive certain benefits from the UK irrespective of where they, or the person they are claiming in respect of, reside in the EEA (i.e. UK nationals and EEA citizens can export benefits from the UK).
- The SSC Regulations will be retained in UK law by the EUWA 2018, as amended by the EUWAA 2020, at the end of the transition period.
- The UK-EU Withdrawal Agreement (and equivalent provisions in the EEA EFTA and Swiss citizens’ rights agreements) establishes a cohort of citizens to whom the EU’s SSC rules will continue to apply after the end of the transition period, no matter what the future relationship covers or whether a future relationship is agreed. This cohort primarily consists of EEA citizens living or working in the UK, and UK nationals living or working in the EEA, at the end of the transition period, as well as certain other groups. Changes to the rules on SSC made under this Act will not apply to this group for as long as they remain in scope of the Withdrawal Agreement. The EUWAA 2020 also protects the social security position of individuals who have lived and worked between the UK and the EEA by the end of the transition period.
- The social security co-ordination section in the Act takes a power to modify the retained SSC Regulations and to make consequential provision to other legislation. This will enable DWP or HM Treasury (and/or where appropriate a Northern Ireland department) to make changes to retained SSC arrangements whether the UK has a future agreement with the EU at the end of the transition period or not.
- In February 2019 the UK and Irish Governments signed a further Convention on Social Security. The Convention preserves the reciprocal social security rights established through the historic CTA arrangements which, in so far as they relate to social security contributions, pensions and benefits are currently provided under EU law. It ensured the position of British and Irish citizens who move, or have moved, between the UK and Ireland will not change following the UK’s exit from the EU. It guarantees continued access to, and equality of treatment in relation to, social security provision for UK and Irish citizens and their qualifying family members in each country and thereby upholds the principles of equal treatment and reciprocity established since the This Act does not amend or affect the Convention on Social Security between the UK and Ireland.
Territorial extent and application
- Section 8 sets out the territorial extent of the Act, that is the jurisdictions in which the Act forms part of the law. The extent of an Act can be different from its application. Application is about where the provisions of an Act will have a practical impact when implemented.
- The provisions of the Act will extend to the whole of the United
- The Act includes provision for Part 1 and section 7 and 10 of Part 3 (to the extent relating to Part 1) to be extended to the Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories by Order in Council. In addition, the power at section 5 may be used to make provision extending to the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the British Overseas Territories where the legislation being amended by regulations made under that power already extends directly to those territories.
- The Act will not make any changes to the Common Travel Area arrangements between the UK and Ireland and the Crown Dependencies, other than that provided in section 2.
- As immigration policy is a reserved area, the Act’s immigration measures will not engage the legislative consent process in any of the devolved legislatures. However, a legislative consent motion has been obtained from the Northern Ireland assembly in respect of section 6 of the Act, which relates to social security co-ordination.
- The Act will have an impact in areas within the legislative competence of the Northern Ireland Assembly in relation to certain aspects of social security co-ordination.
Commentary on provisions of Act
Part 1: Measures relating to ending free movement
Section 1: Repeal of the main retained EU law relating to free movement etc
- This section introduces Schedule 1, which repeals legislation and related rights relating to free movement and other EU law relating to immigration, which is retained in UK law by the EUWA 2018. The details are set out under the Schedule 1 part of these Notes.
Section 2: Irish citizens: entitlement to enter or remain without leave
- The Act protects the status of Irish citizens in the UK when free movement rights end, a status which existed prior to the UK’s membership of the Currently, due to the interplay between domestic legislation and EU free movement rights, a distinction exists between those Irish citizens who enter the UK from Ireland or the Crown Dependencies (the Common Travel Area (CTA)) and those who enter from a point of departure outside the CTA. Under the Immigration Act 1971, Irish citizens entering the UK from another part of the CTA do not require leave to enter or remain in the UK but otherwise are subject to immigration control, for example if travelling to the UK from outside the CTA. It is the EEA Regulations and section 7 of the
Immigration Act 1988, which provide that Irish citizens arriving in the UK from outside the CTA do not require leave to enter or remain in the UK, due to their enforceable EU rights. As legislation relating to free movement and other EU law relating to immigration is being repealed, the Act protects the rights of Irish citizens in the UK irrespective of where they have travelled from, providing the same immigration status to all Irish citizens that are currently only provided for in the Immigration Act 1971 for those travelling from within the CTA.
- Section 2 introduces new section 3ZA to the Immigration Act 1971 to confirm the status of Irish citizens. Irish citizens will not require leave to enter or remain in the UK and will therefore not be subject to immigration controls unless one of the exemptions set out in subsections (2), (3) and (4) applies. These exemptions are that the Irish citizen is subject to a deportation order, exclusion decision or an international travel ban. This reflects current and long-standing practice. Irish citizens have been liable to deportation since the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 and these powers, along with the powers to exclude or impose a travel ban on Irish citizens, exist in current legislation. The Government’s approach to the deportation of Irish citizens since 2007 is to only deport Irish citizens where recommended by a court in sentencing or in exceptional circumstances where that deportation is in the public interest.
- The Act does not affect the CTA arrangements set out in section 1(3) of the Immigration Act
- Subsection (3) of section 2 amends section 9 of the 1971 Act, which relates to further provisions about the CTA, to ensure a consistent approach to how Irish citizens are treated for immigration purposes in line with section 3ZA.
- Subsection (4) amends Schedule 4 of the 1971 Act, which deals with the integration of UK law and the immigration law of the Islands (Jersey, Guernsey and Isle of Man), to align the approach to Irish citizens as set out in section 3ZA.
Section 3: Protection claimants: legal routes from the EU and family reunion
- Section 3 requires the Secretary of State to carry out a review of legal routes for certain protection claimants to enter the UK– including for family reunion of relevant unaccompanied children who are seeking international protection. That review must include a public consultation on legal routes for family reunion of such children. Section 3 also requires the Secretary of State to lay before Parliament, within three months of the date of this Act, a statement providing further detail of the review and consultation. Following the review, the Secretary of State is required to
prepare a report on the outcome of the review, publish that report and lay that report in Parliament.
Section 4: Meaning of “the Immigration Acts” etc
- Subsection (1) amends the UK Borders Act 2007 to ensure that Part 1 (and associated provisions in Part 3) of this Act, when enacted, will be covered by any reference to “the Immigration Acts”.
- Subsection (2) makes clear that Part 1 of the Act is not retained EU This means that it is not part of the body of law that is saved in UK law by the EUWA 2018.
Section 5: Consequential etc provision
- Section 5 allows the Secretary of State to make such regulations as he or she considers appropriate as a consequence of, or in connection with, Part 1 of the Act. Subsection (2) provides that such regulations may modify primary or secondary legislation, as well as direct EU legislation which is retained by the EUWA 2018 at the end of the transition Subsection (3) provides such regulations may make supplementary, incidental, transitional, transitory and saving provision and make different provision for different purposes.
- Subsection (4) states regulations made under this section may include provision in respect of persons who were not entitled to be in the UK under the EEA Regulations or under enforceable rights. For example, the provision could be used to make savings in relation to EEA citizens who are in the UK by the end of the transition period and who are treated for most purposes as though they were exercising Treaty rights, although they are not actually doing so. An example of such a person would be the EEA citizen spouse of a British citizen who does not have comprehensive sickness insurance and who is not otherwise exercising Treaty rights, such as the right to work, and who is therefore not technically exercising EU free movement They can apply for leave under the EUSS and this provision ensures they can be treated under these regulations in the same way as other groups covered by the EUSS.
- Subsection (5) provides that regulations made under this section can amend legislation relating to fees and charges which are connected with the wider repeal of free movement law, for example removing reference to fees for EU residence documents.
- Subsections (6) to (9) set out the Parliamentary scrutiny for regulations made under section 5. Subsections (6) and (7) state any regulations made under section 5 which amend existing primary legislation will be subject to the affirmative procedure, which means they must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. In the case of the first set of regulations made under section 5, subsection (6) provides they will be subject to the made-affirmative procedure, which means they can be made and come into effect immediately, but must then be approved by both Houses within 40 days (excluding periods of dissolution and prorogation and adjournments of more than 4 days) to remain in force. Subsection (8) states any other regulations will be subject to the negative procedure. Subsection (9) specifies circumstances which will not count towards the scrutiny period set out in subsection (6) for the first regulations made under section 5.
- Subsection (10) states that if the first set of regulations made under section 5 cease to apply because they are not approved by both Houses of Parliament within 40 days, where this is required, this will not affect anything which has already been done under those regulations or prevent further regulations from being made.
Part 2: Social security co-ordination
Section 6: Power to modify retained direct EU legislation relating to social security co- ordination
- Section 6 provides a power for an appropriate authority (defined, in subsection (7) as the Secretary of State or the Treasury, a Northern Ireland department, or a Minister of the Crown acting jointly with a Northern Ireland department) to modify , by regulations, the retained direct EU legislation listed in subsection (2) (commonly known as the EU Social Security Co-ordination Regulations). These directly applicable EU regulations provide for social security co-ordination across the EEA (including Switzerland).
- This section allows the Government (and/or, where appropriate, a Northern Ireland department) to make regulations to implement new policies regarding co-ordination of social security. This section is intended to be used to implement new policies subject to the outcome of future negotiations with the EU.
- Subsection (3) sets out that such regulations can make different provision for different categories of person and for different purposes, as well as making supplementary, incidental, consequential, transitional, transitory or saving provision.
- Subsection (4) states that consequential provision includes modification to provisions made by or under primary legislation or to retained direct EU legislation not listed in subsection (2).
- Subsection (5) ensures any directly effective rights that will have been saved by section 4 of the EUWA 2018 at the end of the transition period cease to apply insofar as they are inconsistent with, or are otherwise capable of affecting, the interpretation or application of provision made by regulations under section 6.
- Subsection (6) provides for the interpretation of terms included in subsection (5).
- Subsection (7) provides for the definition of “appropriate authority”.
- Subsection (8) indicates further provision about the power of devolved authorities to make regulations under this section is set out in Schedule 2.
- Subsection (9) indicates further provision about the making of regulations under this section is set out in Schedule 3.
Part 3: General
Section 7: Interpretation
- Section 7 provides for the interpretation of terms included in the
Section 8: Extent
- The provisions of the Act extend to the whole of the United Kingdom. The immigration matters to which the provisions of the Act relate are not within the legislative competence of the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales or the Northern Ireland Assembly.
- Subsections (2) to (4) enable the provisions of, and amendments made by, Part 1 and sections 7 and 10 (to the extent relating to Part 1) of the Act to be extended to the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the British Overseas Territories by Order in Council.
- Subsection (5) provides provisions of regulations made under section 5 of the Act which amend legislation that already extends directly to any of those territories may have the same extent as the legislation being amended.
Section 9: Commencement
- Subsection (1) sets out that, subject to subsection (2), Part 1 (i.e. sections 1, 2 and 5 and Schedule 1) will come into force on a day appointed by the Secretary of State by regulations.
- Subsection (2) sets out that section 3(4) and 3(2) and 3(6) so far as relating to subsection (4) will come into force at the end of the period of two months beginning with the day the Act is
- Subsection (3) provides regulations commencing provisions of the Act under subsection (1) may make different provision for different purposes.
- Subsection (4) sets out that Part 2 (i.e. section 6 and Schedules 2 and 3) come into force on a day appointed by the Secretary of State or the Treasury by regulations.
- Subsection (5) provides regulations commencing provisions of the Act under subsection (4) may make different provision for different purposes or areas.
- Subsection (6) sets out this section and sections 7, 8 and 10 come into force on the day on which this Act is passed.
- Subsection (7) provides commencement regulations under subsections (1) and (4) includes a power to appoint a time on a day, if considered necessary by the Secretary of State or the
Section 10: Short Title
- This section provides that the short title of the Act when enacted will be the Immigration and Social Security Co-ordination (EU Withdrawal) Act 2020.
Schedule 1: Repeal of the main retained EU law relating to free movement etc.
Part 1: EU-derived domestic legislation
- Part 1 of Schedule 1 repeals EU-derived domestic legislation relating to free movement; it revokes the EEA Regulations, which implement the EU Free Movement Directive 2004/38/EC and omits section 7 of the Immigration Act 1988. This will have the effect of bringing EEA citizens and their family members under UK immigration control, which under the 1971 Act means they require leave to enter or remain in the UK.
- Paragraph 2, sub-paragraph (1), omits the power in section 109 of the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 to make regulations to provide for, or make provisions about, an appeal against an immigration decision relating to free movement of persons. This reflects the position that free movement will have Paragraph 2 (3) makes further amendments to the 2002 Act to reflect the fact that section 109 has been omitted.
- Paragraph 3 amends the Provision of Services Regulations 2009 which implement the Services Directive (2006/123/EC), that aims to simplify the establishment and movement of services within the Single Market. This paragraph inserts a new provision into regulation 5 (general exclusions and savings) so that nothing in those Regulations affects the operation of provisions made by or under the Immigration Acts. This is necessary to ensure free movement of persons is fully
Part 2: Retained direct EU legislation
- Part 2 of Schedule 1 repeals and disapplies certain Articles of Regulation (EU) No. 492/2011 on freedom of movement for workers within the Union (the “Workers Regulation”) which is saved in domestic law by the EUWA 2018 at the end of the transition period.
- This regulation provides for the freedom of movement of workers in various ways, including through rights to residency, equal treatment and access to education.
- Paragraph 4 (1) revokes Article 1 of the Workers Regulation, which is specific to immigration and provides a right to be in the territory of another member state to pursue employment. Paragraph 4 (2) ensures Articles 2 to 10 of the Workers Regulation, which are not specific to immigration, do not have ongoing effects for UK immigration law but continue to have effect for other purposes. For example, this will prevent an individual claiming they have a right of residence in the UK under Article 10 of the Workers Regulation on the basis their child is in education here; this does not prevent the resident child of an EEA citizen who is legally resident and employed in the UK from being able to rely on Article 10 to access UK education on the same conditions as a British
Part 3: EU-derived rights etc
- The EUWA 20182, at the end of the transition period, saves as part of UK law directly effective rights that currently flow through section 2(1) of the European Communities Act 1972 (ECA), where those rights have been recognised by a domestic or EU court before then. This includes rights set out in the Treaty on the European Union, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the agreement with the European Economic Area (EEA) and in other international agreements, such as the Swiss Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons and the EU’s Association Agreement with Turkey. It also saves rights derived from Directives that have been recognised by the courts prior to the end of the transition period. A number of these rights could otherwise be relied upon in an immigration context.
- Part 3 of Schedule 1 disapplies other retained EU law relating to free movement of persons. It deals with directly effective rights flowing from the Free Movement of Persons Agreement between the EU and Switzerland which may otherwise form part of UK law by virtue of the EUWA It ensures the rights derived from the specific provisions listed in paragraph 5 (1)(b) cease to be recognised and available in domestic law. As a result, Swiss citizens and their family members, like EEA citizens and their family members, will be subject to the immigration requirements set out in the 1971 Act.
- Paragraph 6 ensures any directly effective rights that will have been saved by the EUWA 2018 and would, in the absence of this paragraph, be retained, cease to apply insofar as they are inconsistent with, or are otherwise capable of affecting the interpretation, application or operation of, specified domestic immigration legislation or For example, the residence rights that are derived from Articles 20 and 213 of the TFEU (rights of citizenship and free movement) will be retained EU law and , unless they are disapplied would provide a right to reside in the UK for certain groups, for example “Chen” carers who are primary carers of an EU citizen child who is in the UK and is self-sufficient. However, the rights derived from Articles 20 and 21 would continue to apply in non-immigration contexts unless disapplied.
- The following is a non-exhaustive list of the directly effective rights relevant to this
|Title of Treaty||Relevant article||Subject area|
|Treaty on European Union||Article 9||Citizenship and equality|
|Treaty on the Functioning of the||Article 18, paragraph 1||Non-discrimination|
3 See the rights deriving from the following lines of CJEU case law: Ruis Zambrano C-34/09, Surinder Singh C-370/90, Chen C-200/02, Ibrahim C-130/08 and Texeira C-480/08 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/799562/Derivative-rights-of- residence-v5.0ext.pdf
|Title of Treaty||Relevant article||Subject area|
|European Union||Article 20(1) and (2)(a)||Citizenship|
|Article 21(1)||Free movement|
|Article 45(1), (2) and (3)||Free movement of workers|
|Article 49||Freedom of establishment|
|Article 56||Free movement of services|
|EEA Agreement||Article 4||Non-discrimination|
|Article 28 (1), (2) and (3)||Freedom of movement for workers|
|Article 31 (1)||Freedom of establishment|
|Article 36 (1)||Free movement of services|
|Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community||Article 96, paragraph 1||Abolish restrictions based on nationality regarding employment in the field of nuclear energy|
|Article 97||Abolish restrictions based on nationality regarding constructions of nuclear installations|
|Additional Protocol to the Turkey ECAA||Article 41(1)||Standstill clause|
|Decision 1/80 of the Association Council established under the Turkey Association Agreement||Articles 6(1) (2)||Right to work|
|Article 7||Rights of family members|
|Article 13||Standstill clause|
|Article 14||Limits on grounds of public policy, public security or public health|
|Swiss Agreement on Free Movement||Article 2||Non-discrimination|
|Article 5||Persons providing services|
|Article 11||Processing of appeals|
|Article 23||Acquired rights|
|Article 1 of Annex 1 [Immigration only]||Entry and Exit|
|Article 2 of Annex 1 [Immigration only]||Residence and economic activity|
|Article 3 of Annex 1 [Immigration only]||Members of the family|
|Articles 4 and 24 of Annex 1 [Immigration only]||Right to stay and Rules regarding residence|
|Article 5 of Annex 1 [Immigration only]||Public order|
|Title of Treaty||Relevant article||Subject area|
|Articles 6 and 12 of Annex 1 [Immigration only]||Rules regarding residence|
|Articles 7 and 8 of Annex 1 [Immigration only]||Employed frontier workers|
|Articles 17 and 20 of Annex 1||Persons providing services|
|Article 23 of Annex 1 [Immigration only]||Persons receiving services|
Schedule 2: Further provision about the scope of the power under section 6
Part 1: Scope of the Power of a Minister of the Crown acting jointly or alone
- No power to make provision within Scottish legislative competence – Paragraph 1 provides that a Minister of the Crown acting alone or jointly with a Northern Ireland department cannot include anything in regulations made under section 6 that would be within the legislative competence of the Scottish Parliament (unless it was an incidental or consequential provision). Paragraph 2 provides that when determining whether provision is within the legislative competence of the Scottish Parliament, not to take into account section 29(2)(d) of the Scotland Act as it relates to EU
Part 2: Scope of the Power of a Northern Ireland Department acting alone
- No power to make provision outside devolved competence – Paragraph 3 states a Northern Ireland department can only legislate alone if the provision is within its devolved competence of the Northern Ireland department (‘devolved competence’). Paragraph 4 sets out what is within devolved competence for the purposes of this Schedule.
- Requirement for consent where it would otherwise be required – Paragraph 5 sets out that if a Northern Ireland department is using the power in a way that would require consent if it were a provision in its own legislation, or where a Northern Ireland department would normally require consent from the UK Government to make such a provision in secondary legislation, then that consent will still be This will not apply if a Northern Ireland department has the power to make such provision without needing UK Government consent.
- Requirement for joint exercise where it would otherwise be required – Paragraph 6 sets out that where a Northern Ireland department would normally only be able to make legislation jointly with the UK Government, a Northern Ireland department will still have to make such legislation jointly when exercising the power.
- Requirement for consultation where it would otherwise be required – Paragraph 7 requires consultation with the UK Government on legislation made by a Northern Ireland department in exercise of the power where a Northern Ireland department would normally be required to consult the UK Government. Paragraph 8 provides for an interpretation provision for Part 2 of Schedule 2.
Part 3: Transitional Provision
- Transitional Provisions – Paragraph 9 disapplies section 24(1)(b) of the Northern Ireland Act 1998 (restriction on acting incompatibly with EU law) so far as relating to EU law in relation to regulations made under section 6.
Schedule 3: Regulations under section 6
Part 1: Statutory Instruments
- Statutory instruments – Paragraph 1 prescribes the power is to be exercised by statutory
Part 2: Scrutiny of Regulations under section 6
- Scrutiny where sole exercise – Paragraph 2 provides that where the UK Government or a Northern Ireland department solely exercises the section 6 power the procedure for regulations will be the affirmative. This means in the case of the UK government, the regulations must be debated and approved by both Houses of Parliament before they have legal effect.
- Scrutiny where joint exercise – Paragraph 3 provides that where the UK Government and a Northern Ireland department exercise the power under section 6 jointly, the affirmative procedure applies in both the UK Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly.
- Combination of instruments – Paragraph 4 permits other regulations subject to the negative procedure to be included in an instrument made under section 6.
- The Act provides for commencement on a day (which can include a time on a day) appointed by regulations (apart from section 7 (interpretation) and sections 8 to 10 (extent, commencement and short title) and section 9 (commencement) which will come into force on the day on which the Act receives Royal Assent).
- The following documents are relevant to the Act and can be read at the stated locations:
- Home Secretary statement to Parliament on the future points-based immigration system (24 February 2020)
- Government’s policy statement on the future immigration system: The UK’s Points- Based Immigration System (19 February 2020) https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-uks-points-based-immigration-
- The Migration Advisory Committee’s Report on a Points-Based System and Salary Thresholds for Immigration (28 January 2020): https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/migration-advisory-committee-mac-
- Queen’s Speech, and background briefing document (December 2019) which referenced the Immigration and Social Security Co-ordination (EU Withdrawal) Bill: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attach
- European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020, with specific reference to Citizens’ Rights clauses: https://services.parliament.uk/Bills/2019- 20/europeanunionwithdrawalagreement/documents.html
- Joint statement of 8 May 2019 between the UK Government and Government of Ireland on the Common Travel Area: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/memorandum-of-understanding-
- The Future Relationship with the EU: The UK’s approach to negotiations, paragraphs 17-18 “Mobility and Social Security Co-ordination” (27 February 2020):
- The UK-Ireland Convention on Social Security published in February 2019: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/cs-ireland-no12019-ukireland- convention-on-social-security
- The Government’s guidance on benefits and pensions for UK nationals moving to the EU published on 24 January 2020: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/benefits-and- pensions-for-uk-nationals-in-the-eea-or-switzerland
- The Government’s draft agreement on Social Security Co-ordination published on 19 May 2019:
- Factsheets: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/immigration-bill-2020- factsheets
- Delegated Powers Memoranda: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/immigration-bill-2020-overarching- documents
- Policy Equality Impact Assessments: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/immigration-bill-2020-overarching- documents
- Impact Assessment: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/immigration-bill- 2020-overarching-documents
- Illustrative draft statutory instruments to be made under the Act on social security co-ordination and immigration consequential amendments published on 4 September 2020 https://depositedpapers.parliament.uk/depositedpaper/2282461/files