Electric and gas-powered vehicles — recharging/refuelling stations

Directive 2014/94/EU — deploying the EU’s alternative fuels infrastructure

— It establishes standard rules on rolling out the EU’s alternative fuels* infrastructure (i.e. electric car recharging stations or natural gas refuelling points) in the different EU countries.
— It lays down minimum requirements for building up this infrastructure, to be implemented as part of every EU country’s national policy framework.


EU countries must adopt national policies that aim to develop the market for alternative transport fuels and the infrastructure to support them. In drawing up these policies, EU countries must:

— make an assessment of the current state of the market and prospects for future development;
— set national targets for deploying the infrastructure and the measures necessary to meet them;
—  designate networks for this infrastructure.

Countries must provide the following, by the following dates.

— 2020 — sufficient recharging stations to allow electric cars to travel around densely populated areas within the network the country has determined.
— 2025 (end) — sufficient recharging stations for hydrogen (for any country that decides to include hydrogen in its national policy framework).
— 2025 (end) — sufficient liquefied natural gas (LNG) stations at seaports, to accommodate LNG-powered ships.


EU countries are required to submit a progress report to the European Commission on the implementation of their national frameworks by 2019, and every 3 years after that.

— Alternative fuels
— Roadmap on resource-efficient transport (2011)
— Directive 2009/28/EC (target of 10 % market share for renewables in transport fuels)

Alternative fuels means fuels or power sources that serve, at least partly, as a substitute for fossil oil sources. Examples include electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, compressed natural gas (CNG), LNG, or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).


Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Public-private partnership for hydrogen and fuel cells

The fuel cells and hydrogen 2 joint undertaking (FCH 2 JU) implements a public-private partnership (PPP) involving the European Commission, the fuel cell and hydrogen industry (represented by the NEW Industry Grouping) and the research community (represented by Research Grouping N.ERGHY). Its aim is to accelerate the development and deployment of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies.

Council Regulation (EU) No 559/2014 of 6 May 2014 establishing the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking.


The FCH 2 JU seeks to deploy the benefits of fuel cells, an efficient conversion technology (i.e. it converts a fuel source into power) and of hydrogen, a clean energy carrier, to help address the energy challenges faced in Europe. Potentially, fuel cells and hydrogen can offer a number of advantages such as:

— allowing renewable energy technology to be applied to transport;
— facilitating distributed (i.e. small-scale) power generation; and
— addressing the intermittent nature of renewables, such as wind power.

Harnessing their use should help fight carbon emissions, reduce dependence on mainly imported hydrocarbons and contribute to growth and jobs.

After a successful first generation that saw some early applications brought to market, FCH 2 JU is looking to accelerate the commercial deployment of hydrogen-based energy and transport solutions across Europe. FCH 2 JU is established for a period up to 31 December 2024.

This phase will involve improving the performance and reducing the cost of products, as well as demonstrating on a wider scale the readiness of the technology for transport (cars, buses and refuelling infrastructure) and energy (hydrogen production and distribution, energy storage and stationary power generation).


The FCH 2 JU is a legal entity established in line with Article 187v of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (which allows for PPPs at EU level in the field of industrial research).The JU sets its own strategic research agenda and funds projects selected following calls for proposals published on the FCH 2 JU’s website. The JU applies the Horizon 2020 rules for participation.

The JU is managed by an Executive Director who is supported by the staff of the Programme Office. The JU has a governing board comprising industry and European Commission representatives. It has overall responsibility for the operations of the JU and oversees the implementation of its activities. It is advised by a Scientific Committee on scientific priorities. There is also a states representatives group representing the countries involved and a stakeholder forum. Decisions are taken in accordance with the voting rules established by the JU.

Article 209 of the EU’s Financial Regulation (Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/2012) provides for new lighter rules customised for EU PPP bodies.


The EU’s (including EFTA’s) financial contribution to the FCH 2 JU to cover administrative costs and operational costs is up to EUR 665 million matched by a similar amount from participants. The JU also seeks to develop synergies with the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF).


Regulation No (EU) 559/2014

Regulation (EU) No 1291/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing Horizon 2020 – the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014-20) and repealing Decision No 1982/2006/EC (Official Journal L 347, 20.12.2013, pp. 104-173).

Clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles

Directive 2009/33/EC on promoting clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles

It aims at promoting and stimulating the development of a market for clean and energy-efficient vehicles.

It requires public authorities and certain other public transport operators to take into account the impact of these vehicles during their operational lifetime in terms of:

energy consumption;
CO2 emissions; and
other pollutant emissions.


The directive applies to contracts for the purchase of road transport vehicles entered into by:

contracting authorities and contracting entities;
operators of public service obligations under a public service contract.
Purchase of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles

EU countries must ensure that contracting authorities, contracting entities and operators under a public service contract take into account the operational lifetime energy and environmental impacts when purchasing road transport vehicles.

Energy and environmental impacts include:

energy consumption;
emissions of CO2;
emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and particulate matter.

To meet the requirement to take into account the environmental impact of vehicles, contracting authorities, contracting entities and public transport operators can choose:

to set technical specifications for energy and environmental performance in the documentation they draw up when the vehicle is purchased; or
to include energy and environmental impacts in the purchasing decision.
Methodology for the calculation of operational lifetime costs

The directive prescribes a methodology to calculate the cost of energy consumption, CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions during a vehicle’s operational lifetime where the contracting authority, contracting entity or the operator under a public service contract has chosen to include the energy and environmental impacts in the purchasing decision.

The operational lifetime cost of the energy consumption of a vehicle is calculated using the following method:

fuel consumption per kilometre is calculated in units of energy consumption per kilometre;
the calculation uses a single monetary value per unit of energy;
the operational lifetime cost of the energy consumption of a vehicle is calculated by multiplying the mileage already performed by energy consumption, and then by the cost per unit of energy.
The cost of CO2 emissions is calculated by multiplying the mileage already performed by CO2 emissions in kilograms per kilometre, and then by the cost per kilogram.

The cost of pollutant emissions is obtained by adding the costs related to emissions of NOx, NMHC and particulate matter.

Sharing best practice

The European Commission encourages the sharing of knowledge and best practice between EU countries with a view to promoting the purchase of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles.

Several initiatives are under way that ensure the directive is implemented. These include:

guidelines on green public procurement and a technical background report;
the European Green Vehicle Initiative which seeks to support the development of green vehicles and sustainable mobility solutions;
the European Clean Bus deployment initiative; and
various studies.
It has applied since 4 June 2009 and had to become law in the EU countries from 4 December 2010.


The EU’s climate and energy package includes targets for 2020 for energy efficiency, a target minimum share for renewable energy and targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The transport sector can make a significant contribution to meeting these targets.


Directive 2009/33/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles (OJ L 120, 15.5.2009, pp. 5-12)

Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the application of Directive 2009/33/EC on the promotion of clean and energy efficient road transport vehicles (COM (2013) 214 final, 18.4.2013)

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