1.Powers  relating  to  citizens’  rights

Clause  7(1)(a)  to  (g):  powers  to  make  regulations  providing  for  the   deadline  for  applications  and  temporary  protections  in  respect  of  the   EU  Settlement  Scheme
Power  conferred  on:  A  Minister  of  the  Crown   Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument   Henry  VIII  power:  Yes   Parliamentary  Procedure:  (1)  Negative  resolution  procedure  for  deadline  power  at  7(1)(a),   unless  amending,  repealing  or  revoking  any  primary  legislation  or  retained  direct  principal   EU  legislation,  for  which  draft  affirmative  procedure  applies;  (2)  draft  affirmative  procedure   for  first  set  of  regulations  provided  for  at  7(1)(b)  to  (g)  and  draft  affirmative  for  subsequent   regulations  that  amend,  repeal,  or  revoke  primary  legislation,  or  retained  direct  principal  EU   legislation;  otherwise  subject  to  the  negative  resolution  procedure.

Context  and  purpose

41. Article  18  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  provides  that  a  host  state  may  require  those residing  in  its  territory  and  within  the  scope  of  that  Article  to  apply  for  new  residence status  (‘pre-­‐‑settled  status’  or  ‘settled  status’)  which  confers  the  rights  under  Title  II  of the  Withdrawal  Agreement  (that  is,  rights  related  to  residence)  and  a  document evidencing  such  status.  Article  19  provides  for  the  issuance  of  residence  documents during  the  implementation  period  and  that  host  states  may  allow  for  applications  for residence  status  or  a  residence  document  to  be  made  voluntarily  from  the  date  of  the coming  into  force  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement.  Articles  17  and  18  of  the  EEA  EFTA Separation  Agreement  contain  corresponding  provisions.  Article  16  of  the  Swiss Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  also  contains  a  corresponding  provision.

42. Under  the  Agreements,  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals,  and  Swiss  nationals  and their  family  members  who  have  been  lawfully  and  continuously  resident  in  the  UK  for five  years  will  be  eligible  for  settled  status,  which  is  also  referred  to  as  ‘indefinite  leave to  remain’  in  current  UK  immigration  law.  EU  citizens  and  their  family  members  who have  been  lawfully  and  continuously  resident  in  the  UK  for  less  than  five  years  will  be eligible  for  ‘pre-­‐‑settled  status’,  also  referred  to  in  UK  immigration  law  as  ‘limited  leave to  remain’.  This  means  that  the  individual  will  be  granted  five  years  limited  leave  to remain,  and  will  be  eligible  to  apply  for  settled  status  as  soon  as  they  have  completed1
five  years  continuous  residence  in  the  UK.

43. The  EU  Settlement  Scheme  is  being  provided  for  under  existing  UK  immigration  law (in  particular,  rules  made  under  section  3  of  the  Immigration  Act  1971).
44. Subsection  (1)(a)  enables  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  to  specify  the  deadline  by  which  the protected  cohort,  that  is,  all  persons  who  may  be  granted  a  status  under  the  EU Settlement  Scheme,  must  apply  for  immigration  status  under  the  EU  Settlement Scheme,  as  set  out  in  Article  18(1)(b)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  17(1)(b)  of the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  and  Article  16(1)(b)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement.  This  deadline  must  not  be  less  than  six  months  from  the  end  of  the implementation  period.  This  gives  rise  to  a  ‘grace  period’,  after  the  end  of  the implementation  period,  in  which  EU  law  will  no  longer  apply  but  the  rights  and protections  flowing  from  the  Agreements  must  be  available  in  legal  and  practical terms  to  members  of  the  protected  cohort  who  have  not  yet  applied  for  immigration status  under  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme.

45. Subsections  (1)(b),  (c)  and  (d)  enable  a  Minister  of  the  Crown,  by  regulations,  to implement  Article  18(2)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  17(2)  of  the  EEA  EFTA Separation  Agreement,  and  Article  16(2)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement. Those  articles  provide  for  all  the  rights  provided  for  in  the  citizens’  rights  part  of  the Agreements  to  apply  to  members  of  the  protected  cohort  who  have  not  yet  applied  for immigration  status  under  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme  during  the  grace  period.

46. Subsections  (1)(e),  (f)  and  (g)  enable  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  to  make  regulations  to implement  Article  18(3)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  17(3)  of  the  EEA  EFTA Separation  Agreement,  and  Article  16(3)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement. Those  articles  require  that,  where  a  person  has  made  an  application  for  immigration status  under  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme,  all  the  rights  provided  for  in  the  citizens’ rights  parts  of  the  Agreements  shall  apply  to  that  person  until  the  application  is  finally determined,  including  procedures  for  judicial  redress  where  applicable.

47. The  Government  intends  that  regulations  under  subsection  (1)(b)  to  (g)  will  give  effect to  the  relevant  provisions  in  the  Agreements  by  saving  the  necessary  components  of the  existing  regime  in  the  Immigration  (European  Economic  Area)  Regulations  2016 that  protect  the  rights  of  EU  citizens,  EEA  nationals,  Swiss  nationals,  and  their  family members  during  the  grace  period  and  pending  resolution  of  individual  applications for  status  under  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme.
48. Subsections  (2)  and  (3)  enable  regulations  under  subsection  (1)  to  apply  both  to  the persons  whom  the  provision  in  question  applies  and  to  all  those  who  are  eligible  for
22

leave  under  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme.  This  will  enable  provision  to  be  made,  for   example,  to  protect  the  position  of  certain  groups  who  currently  derive  their  residence   rights  from  EU  law,  and  are  granted  leave  to  enter  or  remain  in  the  UK  by  virtue  of  the   residence  scheme  immigration  rules  (as  defined  in  clause  17  of  the  Bill)  but  who  are   not  covered  by  the  Agreements,  such  as  family  members  of  UK  nationals  who  benefit   from  the  Surinder  Singh  principle8.

49. Subsection  (4)  provides  that  the  power  to  make  regulations  under  this  section  may  be exercised  to  modify  any  provision  made  by  or  under  an  enactment  (this  is  therefore  a so  called  ‘Henry  VIII’  power).

50. This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  Joint  Committee  decisions  amending certain  parts  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement within  the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is  intended  to  address9.

51. Subsection  (3)  of  clause  16  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  may  not provide  for  the  conferral  of  functions  (including  the  conferral  of  a  discretion)  on,  or  the delegation  of  functions  to,  a  person  who  is  not  a  public  authority  (but  may  so  provide if  the  person  is  a  public  authority).

Justification  for  the  power

52. Implementation  of  Article  18  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  17  of  the  EEA EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  and  Article  16  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement will  involve  significant  technical  detail.  In  particular,  preserving  the  rights  of  those who  have  not  yet  made  an  application  for  immigration  status  during  the  grace  period, and  those  whose  application  has  not  yet  been  determined,  will  involve  detailed legislative  provision.  Such  provision  is  currently  set  out  in  secondary  legislation  (the EEA  Regulations  2016).

53. Article  18(1)(b)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  and  the  corresponding  provisions  in  the EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  and  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement,  specify that  the  deadline  for  submitting  applications  shall  not  be  less  than  six  months  from  the

8  SSurinder  Singh  (C-­‐‑370/90  Surinder  Singh)  established  the  principle  that  nationals  of  Member  States   should  not  be  deterred  from  leaving  their  country  of  origin  to  pursue  an  economic  activity  in  another   Member  State.  They  would  be  so  deterred  if  on  returning  to  the  Member  State  of  which  they  are  a   national  they  did  not  enjoy  conditions  at  least  equivalent  to  those  they  would  enjoy  under  community   law  in  the  territory  of  another  Member  State.  In  this  case  in  respect  of  family  reunification  rights.     9The  Joint  Committees  may  only  adopt  amendments  to  parts  of  the  Agreements  other  than  Parts  One,   Four  and  Six  where  such  amendments  are  necessary  to  correct  errors,  address  omissions  or  other   deficiencies,  or  to  address  situations  unforeseen  when  the  Agreements  were  signed.  Any  such   amendments  may  not  amend  the  essential  elements  of  the  Agreements.    

end  of  the  implementation  period  (the  ‘grace  period’).  However,  there  is  a  specific   option  in  Article  18(1)(c)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  and  corresponding  provisions   in  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  and  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement,  to   extend  the  grace  period,  in  addition  to  the  general  ability  in  Article  38  to  make  more   favourable  provisions.  So,  while  we  expect  the  grace  period  to  expire  six  months  from   the  end  of  the  implementation  period,  it  is  prudent  to  provide  the  flexibility  for  an   alternative  date  to  be  set,  in  line  with  the  flexibility  provided  for  in  the  Agreements.

54. The  power  at  7(1)(b)  to  (g)  will  be  used  to  preserve  the  rights  of  those  who  have  not made  an  application  for  immigration  status  during  the  grace  period,  and  for  those whose  application  has  not  yet  been  determined.  Experience  indicates  that  it  may  be necessary  to  modify  the  savings  provision  on  a  relatively  frequent  basis.  For  example, the  EEA  Regulations  2016  have  been  amended  three  times  since  they  were  made  to respond  to  domestic  legislative  changes  and  developments  in  CJEU  case  law.  Taking  a power  provides  the  scope  to  make  appropriate  savings,  to  make  technical  amendments as  and  when  required  and  to  respond  to  domestic  and  CJEU  judgments  on  the interpretation  of  the  citizens’  rights  provisions  of  the  Agreements,  including  the  EU Settlement  Scheme.

55. The  clause  is  limited  to  making  such  provision  as  appropriate  for  implementing Articles  18  and  19  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  and  equivalent  provisions  in  the  EEA EFTA  Separation  Agreement  and  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement,  that  is, ensuring  that  certain  substantive  procedural  powers  and  protections  under  Directive 2004/38/EC  (and  equivalent  provision  in  respect  of  Switzerland)  continue  to  apply. Directive  2004/38/EC  has  already  been  transposed  in  the  UK  via  the  EEA  Regulations 2016.

56. Furthermore,  any  provisions  made  under  the  power  in  connection  with  restrictions  on citizens’  rights  will  have  to  comply  with  the  Articles  20  and  21  of  the  Withdrawal Agreement  and  the  corresponding  provisions  in  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement (Articles  19  and  20),  and  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  (Article  17).

57. While  the  main  detail  of  the  immigration  rights  of  EEA  and  Swiss  nationals  is currently  set  out  in  secondary  legislation  (the  EEA  Regulations  2016),  it  is  supported by  a  large  volume  of  primary  legislation.  It  will  be  necessary  to  modify  this  primary legislation  to  make  effective  provision  for  the  protected  cohort  during  the  grace  period pending  the  resolution  of  their  applications  under  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme.

58. For  example,  section  7  of  the  Immigration  Act  1988  provides  that  those  with  a  right under  EU  law  or  under  regulations  made  under  section  2(2)  of  the  European Communities  Act  1972  (for  example  the  EEA  Regulations  2016)  to  enter  or  reside  in  the UK  do  not  need  leave  to  enter  or  reside.  This  is  a  key  provision  that  ensures  that  those   with  rights  under  the  EEA  Regulations  2016  do  not  also  require  leave  to  enter  or   remain  in  the  UK.  It  will  be  necessary  to  modify  this  provision  to  implement  Article   18(2)  and  (3)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  17(2)  and  (3)  of  the  EEA  EFTA   Separation  Agreement,  and  Article  16(2)  and  (3)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights   Agreement.

59. Although  the  aforementioned  powers  are  capable  of  amending  primary  legislation  (in particular,  the  Immigration  Act  1971,  and  the  Nationality,  Immigration,  and  Asylum Act  2002),  the  scope  of  the  amendments  that  may  be  made  are  naturally  constrained  by the  narrow  scope  of  what  may  be  done  under  the  power.
Justification  for  the  procedure

60. Paragraph  1  of  Part  1,  Schedule  5  provides  for  the  parliamentary  procedure  applicable in  respect  of  the  exercise  of  these  powers.

61. The  power  at  7(1)(a)  to  set  a  deadline  for  the  submission  of  applications  will  be  subject to  the  negative  resolution  procedure  (unless  it  is  used  to  amend,  repeal,  or  revoke primary  legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation).

62. The  powers  in  clause  7(1)(b)  to  (g)  will  be  used  to  preserve  the  rights  of  the  protected cohort  during  the  grace  period.  The  first  set  of  regulations  to  be  made  under  the powers  in  clause  7(1)(b)  to  (g)  are  likely  to  be  substantial  and  detailed.  The  first  use  of these  powers  is  therefore  subject  to  the  draft  affirmative  procedure.  The  first  set  of regulations  will,  for  example,  provide  that  provisions  in  the  EEA  Regulations  2016  in relation  to  residence  rights,  powers  in  relation  to  refusal  of  admission  and  removal, procedures  in  relation  to  appeals  and  documentation  continue  to  apply  to  the protected  cohort  during  the  grace  period  and  pending  the  determination  of  any application  to  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme.  The  main  detail  of  the  residence  rights  of  EU citizens  and  EEA  EFTA  and  Swiss  nationals  is  currently  contained  in  secondary legislation  (the  EEA  Regulations  2016).  However,  this  is  underpinned  by  primary legislation,  in  particular  the  Immigration  Acts.10

63. Thereafter,  any  changes  are  likely  to  be  technical  and  minor.  For  example, consequential  changes  may  be  needed  to  reflect  changes  to  domestic  legislation  as  a consequence  of  developments  in  CJEU  case  law  which  is  relevant  to  this  area.  The Government  notes  that  at  present  the  rights  of  EU  citizens  and  EEA  EFTA  and  Swiss nationals  and  their  family  members  are  provided  for  by  regulations  made  under  the

10  ‘The  Immigration  Acts’  is  the  defined  term  for  a  body  of  immigration  legislation,  as  defined  in   Schedule  1  to  the  Interpretation  Act  1978.

negative  procedure  (the  EEA  Regulations  2016).  However,  if  this  power  is  ever   exercised  for  the  purpose  of  amending  or  repealing  primary  legislation  or  retained   direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the  draft  affirmative  procedure  shall  apply,  to  provide   for  appropriate  scrutiny  for  these  types  of  amendments.

Clause  8(1)  and  (2):  powers  to  make  provision  in  regulations  in  respect   of  frontier  workers

Power  conferred  on:  A  Minister  of  the  Crown
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes
Parliamentary  Procedure:  Draft  affirmative  procedure  for  first  set  of  regulations  or  if  exercise   of  either  power  involves  making  regulations  which  are  intended  to  amend,  repeal  or  revoke   any  primary  legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation;  otherwise  negative   resolution  procedure.

Context  and  purpose

64. Frontier  workers  are  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals  or  Swiss  nationals  who  are economically  active,  but  not  resident,  in  the  UK.  This  clause  provides  for  the protections  of  their  rights  where  they  are  working  in  the  UK  at  the  end  of  the implementation  period,  in  line  with  the  Agreements.  Under  the  Common  Travel  Area, UK  and  Irish  citizens  will  have  the  right  to  move  freely  and  work  across  the  Irish border,  and  so  will  not  need  to  rely  on  these  frontier  worker  rights  to  work  in  and enter  the  UK11.

65. Articles  24(3)  and  25(3)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Articles  23(3)  and  24(3)  of  the EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  and  Article  20(2)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement  provide  for  the  rights  of  employed  and  self-­‐‑employed  frontier  workers  to enter  and  exit  the  state  of  work  and  to  retain  their  status  in  certain  circumstances  to recover  from  an  illness  or  accident  or  to  allow  them  to  find  new  employment  in  the state  of  work.  These  rights  are  currently  underpinned  by  section  7  of  the  Immigration Act  1988  (‘the  1988  Act’)  which  exempts  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals  and  Swiss nationals  from  UK  immigration  control,  and  in  the  EEA  Regulations  2016  which transpose  EU  law  relating  to  the  free  movement  of  persons.  The  planned  Immigration and  Social  Security  Co-­‐‑ordination  (EU  Withdrawal)  Bill  will  disapply  section  7  of  the 1988  Act  and  the  EEA  Regulations  2016,  so  these  rights  will  need  to  be  set  out  afresh  in domestic  legislation.

11  A  Memorandum  of  Understanding  between  the  UK  and  Ireland  on  the  Common  Travel  Area  was   signed  between  the  UK  Government  and  the  Irish  Government  on  8  May  2019.    

66. Article  26  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  25  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation Agreement  and  Articles  21(1)(a)  and  (2)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement permit  the  state  of  work  to  require  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals  and  Swiss nationals  who  have  rights  as  frontier  workers  under  the  Agreements  to  apply  for  a document  certifying  their  rights.

67. Subsection  (1)  provides  Ministers  of  the  Crown  with  a  power  to  make  secondary legislation  for  the  purpose  of  implementing  Articles  24(3)  and  25(3)  of  the  Withdrawal Agreement  and  equivalent  provisions  in  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  (Article 23(3)  and  24(3))  and  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  (Article  20(2))  concerning the  rights  of  employed  and  self-­‐‑employed  frontier  workers  to  enter  their  state  of  work, and  retention  of  the  rights  that  they  enjoyed  as  workers  there  before  the  end  of  the implementation  period.

68. Subsection  (2)  provides  for  a  power  to  make  secondary  legislation  for  the  purpose  of implementing  Article  26  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  25  of  the  EEA  EFTA Separation  Agreement  and  Articles  21(1)(a)  and  21(2)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Separation  Agreement.  These  provisions  allow  for  a  permit  system  that  can  be  used  to certify  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals  and  Swiss  nationals  as  frontier  workers  in  the UK  after  the  end  of  the  implementation  period.

69. Subsection  (3)  provides  that  the  power  to  make  regulations  under  subsection  (1)  or  (2) may  be  exercised  by  modifying  any  provision  made  by  or  under  the  Immigration  Acts, as  defined  in  Schedule  1  of  the  Interpretation  Act  1978  (this  is  therefore  a  so  called ‘Henry  VIII’  power).

70. This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  Joint  Committee  decisions  amending certain  parts  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement, within  the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is  intended  to  address12.

71. Subsection  (3)  of  clause  16  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  may  not provide  for  the  conferral  of  functions  (including  the  conferral  of  a  discretion)  on,  or  the delegation  of  functions  to,  a  person  who  is  not  a  public  authority  (but  may  so  provide if  the  person  is  a  public  authority).
Justification  for  powers

12The  Joint  Committees  may  only  adopt  amendments  to  parts  of  the  Agreements  other  than  Parts  One,   Four  and  Six  where  such  amendments  are  necessary  to  correct  errors,  address  omissions  or  other   deficiencies,  or  to  address  situations  unforeseen  when  the  Agreements  were  signed.  Any  such   amendments  may  not  amend  the  essential  elements  of  the  Agreements.  

72. It  is  proposed  that  the  frontier  worker  provisions  in  Articles  24(3),  25(3)  and  26  of  the Withdrawal  Agreement  and  relevant  equivalent  provisions  in  the  EEA  EFTA Separation  Agreement  (Articles  23(3),  24(3)  and  25)  and  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement  (Articles  20(2)  and  21(1)(a)  and  (2))  should  be  implemented  in  secondary legislation  because  the  detail  will  be  highly  technical.  An  example  of  this  technical detail  is  the  definition  of  when  a  person  retains  the  status  of  a  worker,  such  as  the result  of  illness  or  an  accident.  This  can  be  seen  in  the  EEA  Regulations  2016  which currently  implement  most  of  these  rights  as  they  exist  now.  Further,  implementing  in secondary  legislation  means  necessary  amendments  can  be  made  more  quickly, ensuring  the  UK’s  compliance  with  its  international  obligations  as  early  as  possible. With  regard  to  amending  primary  legislation,  the  Government  considers  that  the  use of  delegated  powers  is  justified  in  the  context  of  the  limited  scope  of  what  the  powers can  do,  that  is,  to  implement  Articles  24(3),  25(3)  and  26  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement, Articles  23(3,  24(3)  and  25  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  and  Articles  20(2) and  21(1)(a)  and  (2)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement.  This  power  is  limited  in that  it  may  only  be  used  to  amend  provisions  made  by  or  under  the  Immigration  Acts.

73. The  frontier  worker  provisions  need  to  include  the  continued  exemption  from immigration  control,  the  right  of  entry,  and  the  procedures  relating  to  the  application process  for  documents  certifying  frontier  worker  status  and  the  issuance  and  renewal of  such  documents.  The  latter  will  be  a  detailed  technical  regime.

74. Further,  any  of  these  provisions  may  require  amendment  in  the  future  in  light  of jurisprudence  from  the  CJEU,  either  by  the  end  of  the  implementation  period  (for matters  relating  to  frontier  workers  under  EU  law)  or  by  31  December  2028  (for matters  relating  to  frontier  workers  in  the  Withdrawal  Agreement).

75. Some  restrictions  on  the  rights  of  frontier  workers  as  permitted  by  the  Agreements  will be  set  out  in  the  same  secondary  legislation,  but  using  the  power  in  clause  9  (for example,  the  restriction  on  the  right  of  entry).  Other  restrictions  will  be  set  out  in existing  instruments,  either  in  the  2016  Regulations  by  virtue  of  savings  provisions  or in  primary  legislation  (for  example,  the  Immigration  Act  1971  and  the  UK  Borders  Act 2007  which  set  out  the  framework  for  deportation).
Justification  for  procedure

76. Paragraph  1  of  Part  1  of  Schedule  5  provides  for  the  parliamentary  procedure applicable  in  respect  of  the  exercise  of  these  powers.

77. The  first  set  of  regulations  made  under  the  power  at  clause  8(1)  are  likely  to  be substantive  and  detailed,  setting  out  the  rights  of  employed  and  self-­‐‑employed  frontier
workers.  The  first  set  of  regulations  made  under  this  power  will  therefore  be  subject  to   the  draft  affirmative  procedure.  Any  subsequent  regulations  made  under  this  power   will  be  for  the  purpose  of  making  minor  technical  amendments  or  corrections  to  the   first  set  of  regulations.  For  this  reason,  subsequent  regulations  will  be  subject  to  the   negative  resolution  procedure,  unless  those  regulations  amend,  repeal  or  revoke   primary  legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  in  which  case  the  draft   affirmative  procedure  will  apply  to  provide  appropriate  scrutiny  of  the  proposed   legislation.

78. Exercise  of  the  power  at  clause  8(2)  will  be  subject  to  the  negative  procedure,  unless the  power  is  exercised  to  amend,  repeal  or  revoke  primary  legislation  or  retained direct  principal  EU  legislation,  in  which  case  the  draft  affirmative  procedure  will apply.  There  is  precedent  for  the  proposed  approach:  current  registration  schemes under  EEA  Regulations  2016  are  made  under  the  negative  procedure.  Subsequent regulations  will  only  need  to  deal  with  technical  matters  such  as  those  necessary  to give  effect  domestically  to  decisions  of  the  CJEU  for  the  time-­‐‑limited  period  that  the CJEU  has  jurisdiction  in  respect  of  the  citizens’  rights  parts  of  the  Withdrawal Agreement.

Clause  9(1):  power  to  provide  for  restrictions  of  rights  of  entry  and   residence

Power  conferred  on:  A  Minister  of  the  Crown
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes
Parliamentary  Procedure:  Draft  affirmative  procedure  for  first  set  of  regulations,  and  for   subsequent  regulations  which  amend,  repeal  or  revoke  primary  legislation  or  retained  direct   principal  EU  legislation;  otherwise  negative  resolution  procedure.

Context  and  purpose

79. Article  20  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  and  relevant  equivalent  provisions  at  Article 19  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  and  Articles  17  and  20(3)  of  the  Swiss Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  establish  the  legal  basis  on  which  a  person’s  entry  and residence  rights  under  the  Agreements  can  be  restricted.

80. Article  20(1)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  and  its  equivalent  provisions  at  Article 19(1)  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  provide  that  conduct  before  the  end  of the  implementation  period  of  persons  in  scope  must  be  considered  in  accordance  with Chapter  VI  of  Directive  2004/38/EC.  Article  17(1)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement  requires  that  conduct  before  the  end  of  the  implementation  period  of persons  in  scope  shall  be  considered  in  accordance  with  Article  5  of  Annex  1  to  the  EU-­‐‑ Swiss  Free  Movement  of  Persons  Agreement  (‘FMOPA’).  This  means  that  the  relevant public  policy,  public  security  or  public  health  test  under  the  Directive  and  FMOPA  (i.e. the  existing  EU  law  test  for  restrictions  of  entry  and  residence)  is  to  be  applied  to conduct  by  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals,  and  Swiss  nationals  and  their  family members  committed  before  the  end  of  the  implementation  period.  Article  20(2)  of  the Withdrawal  Agreement  provides  that  conduct  after  the  end  of  the  implementation period  is  to  be  considered  in  accordance  with  national  law.  Article  20(3)  provides  that the  UK  may  refuse,  terminate  or  withdraw  entry  and  residence  rights  in  the  case  of abuse  of  those  rights  or  fraud  as  set  out  at  Article  35  of  Directive  2004/38/EC.  Article 20(4)  provides  for  the  removal  of  applicants  who  submit  fraudulent  or  abusive applications  under  the  conditions  set  out  in  Directive  2004/38/EC  and  even  before  final judgment  where  judicial  redress  is  sought.  Similar  provisions  are  included  in  the  EEA EFTA  Separation  Agreement  (Article  19)  and  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement (Articles  17  and  20(3)).

81. This  clause  gives  Ministers  of  the  Crown  the  power  to  make  regulations  for  the purpose  of  implementing  the  relevant  provisions  in  the  Agreements  in  connection with  restrictions  on  entry  and  residence  rights  based  on  conduct  committed  before  the end  of  the  implementation  period  or  on  the  grounds  of  fraud  or  abuse  of  rights.  In particular  it  enables  Ministers  to  ensure  that  decisions  to  restrict  entry  or  residence rights  based  on  conduct  before  the  end  of  the  implementation  period  can  be  made  by applying  the  relevant  public  policy,  public  security  or  public  health  test.  The  power can  be  exercised,  among  other  things,  by  saving  the  current  provisions  for  removal and  exclusion  of  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  and  Swiss  nationals  within  EEA  Regulations 2016  to  the  extent  necessary  to  ensure  those  provisions  continue  to  apply  in  relation  to conduct  before  the  end  of  the  implementation  period.

82. Subsection  (1)  provides  the  power  to  make  regulations  to  implement  Articles  20(1),  (3), and  (4)  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Articles  19(1),  (3),  and  (4)  of  the  EEA  EFTA Separation  Agreement,  and  Articles  17(1),  17(3)  and  20(3)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement.

83. Subsection  (2)  provides  that  regulations  under  subsection  (1)  can  be  applied  to: a. persons  to  whom  a  provision  identified  in  subsection  (1)  applies;  and b. persons  to  whom  those  provisions  do  not  apply,  but  who  are  otherwise protected  by  the  UK’s  domestic  implementation  of  the  Agreements  i.e.  they have  been  granted  leave  to  enter  or  remain  under  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme,  as well  as  those  who  have  entry  clearance  granted  by  virtue  of  relevant  entry clearance  immigration  rules,  and  those  who  otherwise  have  leave  to  enter granted  after  arriving  with  entry  clearance  by  virtue  of  relevant  entry  clearance immigration  rules.

84. Subsection  (3)  provides  that  references  to  a  person  who  has  entry  clearance  or  leave  to enter  or  remain  in  sub-­‐‑section  2(b)  include  persons  who  would  have  had  entry clearance  or  leave  to  enter  or  remain  but  for  the  making  of  a  deportation  order  under section  5(1)  of  the  Immigration  Act  1971  or  any  other  decision  made  in  connection  with restricting  a  right  to  enter  the  UK.
85. Subsection  (4)  provides  that  the  power  to  make  regulations  under  this  clause  may  be exercised  by  modifying  any  provision  made  by  or  under  the  Immigration  Acts  (see  the definition  in  s.61  of  the  UK  Borders  Act  2007)  or  any  subordinate  legislation  made under  any  other  primary  legislation.  This  is  therefore  a  so  called  ‘Henry  VIII’  power but  limited  only  to  the  modification  of  the  Immigration  Acts,  not  wider  primary legislation.

86. This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  Joint  Committee  decisions  amending Parts  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  within the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is  intended  to  address13.

87. Subsection  (3)  of  clause  16  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  may  not provide  for  the  conferral  of  functions  (including  the  conferral  of  a  discretion)  on,  or  the delegation  of  functions  to,  a  person  who  is  not  a  public  authority  (but  may  so  provide if  the  person  is  a  public  authority).

Justification  for  taking  the  power

88. Implementing  Article  20  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  19  of  the  EEA  EFTA Separation  Agreement,  and  Articles  17  and  20(3)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement  will  involve  significant  technical  detail.  The  volume  and  nature  of  the amendments  required  make  them  well  suited  to  secondary  legislation.  Taking  a  power allows  the  Government  to  make  appropriate  savings,  to  make  technical  amendments as  and  when  required  and  to  quickly  respond  to  domestic  and  CJEU  judgments  in coming  years  on  the  interpretation  of  the  citizens’  rights  provisions  of  the  Withdrawal Agreements.  Without  a  power,  the  Government  would  not  be  able  to  respond  quickly to  ensure  correct  implementation  of  its  international  obligations  under  the Agreements.

89. The  clause  is  limited  to  the  provisions  of  the  Agreements  on  restrictions  on  rights  of entry  and  residence,  that  is,  ensuring  that  certain  substantive  and  procedural protections  under  Directive  2004/38/EC  (and  equivalent  provision  in  respect  of Switzerland)  continue  to  apply.  Directive  2004/38/EC  has  already  been  transposed  in the  UK  via  the  EEA  Regulations  2016.  The  ability  to  modify  primary  legislation  is further  constrained  to  modification  of  the  Immigration  Acts  only.

90. Any  provisions  made  under  the  power  in  connection  with  restrictions  on  citizens’ rights  will  have  to  comply  with  the  terms  of  the  Agreements.  The  Independent Monitoring  Authority  (‘IMA’)  will  oversee  the  UK’s  implementation  of  the  citizens’ rights  provisions  in  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation Agreement.  The  power  can  be  used  to  make  technical  amendments  in  response  to  IMA reports.

13The  Joint  Committees  may  only  adopt  amendments  to  parts  of  the  Agreements  other  than  Parts  One,   Four  and  Six  where  such  amendments  are  necessary  to  correct  errors,  address  omissions  or  other   deficiencies,  or  to  address  situations  unforeseen  when  the  Agreements  were  signed.  Any  such   amendments  may  not  amend  the  essential  elements  of  the  Agreements.  

91. This  power  can  only  be  used  in  a  way  that  provides  protection  in  respect  of  the restriction  of  entry  and  residence  rights  for  people  in  scope; it  cannot  be  used  in  wider ways  which  act  to  their  detriment.

Justification  for  procedure

92. Paragraph  1  of  Part  1,  Schedule  5  provides  for  the  parliamentary  procedure  applicable to  the  exercise  of  this  power.

93. The  first  set  of  regulations  made  under  the  power  is  subject  to  the  draft  affirmative procedure  because  the  first  set  of  regulations  will  be  substantive  and  detailed,  setting out  how  and  when  a  person’s  admission  and  residence  rights  can  be  restricted.  Any subsequent  regulations  will  be  used  to  make  technical  amendments  and  corrections, and  therefore  the  negative  resolution  procedure  will  apply  for  subsequent  regulations, unless  those  regulations  amend,  repeal  or  revoke  primary  legislation  or  retained  direct principal  EU  legislation,  in  which  case  the  draft  affirmative  procedure  will  apply,  to provide  appropriate  scrutiny  of  the  proposed  legislation.

94. The  procedure  provided  for  by  this  clause  is  based  on  the  procedure  under  which  the current  restrictions  provisions  deriving  from  EU  law  were  made.  There  is  precedent for  use  of  the  negative  procedure  for  subsequent  regulations  of  this  nature.  The  current provisions  governing  when  and  how  a  person’s  EEA  admission  and  residence  rights can  be  restricted  were  made  within  the  EEA  Regulations  2016,  by  negative  statutory instrument  under  section  2(2)  of  the  ECA.  They  transpose  powers  and  obligations within  Directive  2004/38/EC.

95. The  exercise  of  the  power  may  include  modifying  any  provision  made  by  or  under  the Immigration  Acts,  as  defined  in  Schedule  1  of  the  Interpretation  Act  1978,  or  any provision  made  under  other  primary  legislation.  Where  subsequent  regulations  are made  for  the  purpose  of  amending  or  repealing  a  provision  of  the  Immigration  Acts, the  draft  affirmative  procedure  will  be  adopted.

Clause  11(1):  power  to  make  provision  for  appeals  against  citizens’   rights  immigration  decisions

Power  conferred  on:  A  Minister  of  the  Crown
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes
Parliamentary  Procedure:  Made  affirmative  procedure  for  the  first  regulations.  Draft   affirmative  for  subsequent  regulations  which  amend,  repeal  or  revoke  primary  legislation,  or   retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation;  otherwise  subject  to  the  negative  resolution   procedure.

Context  and  purpose

96. Articles  18  and  21  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  provide  the  right  to  judicial  redress  in respect  of  decisions  refusing  to  grant  residence  status  under  the  EU  Settlement  Scheme or  to  restrict  residence  rights  of  persons  protected  by  the  Withdrawal  Agreement. Corresponding  obligations  exist  under  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  at Articles  17  and  20.

97. Further,  the  effect  of  Article  20  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  (and  the  corresponding provision  at  Article  19  in  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement)  is  to  provide  for  a right  of  judicial  redress  against  restrictions  on  rights  of  entry  to  the  UK  for  frontier workers  and  those  continuing  a  planned  course  of  healthcare  treatment  under  Article 32  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  (and  the  corresponding  provision  at  Article  31  of  the EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement).
98. Article  8  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  provides  for  similar  rights  of  judicial redress.
99. This  clause  provides  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  with  a  power  to  make  regulations  to make  provision  for,  or  in  connection  with,  appeals  against  citizens’  rights  immigration decisions,  defined  in  subsection  (2)  of  the  clause  as: a. a  decision  made  in  connection  with  entry  clearance  by  virtue  of  relevant  entry clearance  immigration  rules; b. a  decision  made  in  connection  with  leave  to  enter  or  remain  by  virtue  of residence  scheme  immigration  rules;
c. a  decision  made  in  connection  with  entry  clearance  for  the  purposes  of acquiring  leave  to  enter  or  remain  in  relation  to  a  healthcare  right  of  entry  (as defined  in  subsection  (5)); d. a  decision  made  in  connection  with  or  leave  to  enter  or  remain  in  relation  to  a healthcare  right  of  entry  (as  defined  in  subsection  (5)); e. a  decision  made  in  connection  with  a  right  to  enter  or  remain  by  virtue  of regulations  for  frontier  workers; f. a  decision  to  make,  or  a  refusal  to  revoke,  a  deportation  order  under  section 5(1)  of  the  Immigration  Act  1971  in  relation  to  a  relevant  person;  and g. any  other  decision  made  in  connection  with  restricting  the  right  of  a  relevant person  to  enter  the  United  Kingdom.

100.This  power  may  also  be  used  to  make  provision  for,  or  in  connection  with,  reviews (including  judicial  reviews)  of  decisions  within  (2)(g).

101.This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  Joint  Committee  decisions  amending parts  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  within the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is  intended  to  address14.

102.Subsection  (1)  provides  that  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  may  by  regulations  make provision  for,  or  in  connection  with,  appeals  against  citizens’  rights  immigration decisions.

103.The  Government  intends  that  regulations  under  this  power  will  make  provision  for appeals  to  be  made  to  the  First-­‐‑tier  Tribunal  (Immigration  and  Asylum  Chamber)  with an  onward  right  of  appeal  with  permission  to  the  Upper  Tribunal  on  a  point  of  law.

104.Subsection  (2)  defines  the  ‘citizens’  rights  immigration  decisions’  in  connection  with which  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  may  make  appeals  regulations  under  this  clause.

105.Subsection  (3)  states  that  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  may  make  regulations  to  make provision  for,  or  in  connection  with,  reviews  (including  judicial  reviews)  of  decisions within  (2)(g).
106.Subsection  (4)  states  that  the  power  to  make  regulations  under  this  subsection  (1)  or  (3) may,  among  other  things,  be  exercised  by  modifying  any  provision  made  by  or  under an  enactment.

14The  joint  committees  may  only  adopt  amendments  to  parts  of  the  Agreements  other  than  Parts  One,   Four  and  Six  where  such  amendments  are  necessary  to  correct  errors,  address  omissions  or  other   deficiencies,  or  to  address  situations  unforeseen  when  the  Agreements  were  signed.  Any  such   amendments  may  not  amend  the  essential  elements  of  the  Agreements.  

107.Subsection  (5)  defines  a  ‘healthcare  right  of  entry’  for  the  purposes  of  subsection  (2)  as a  right  to  enter  the  UK  that  a  person  has  by  virtue  of  Article  32(1)(b)  of  the  Withdrawal Agreement,  Article  31(1)(b)  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  or  Article 26a(1)(b)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement.

108.Subsection  (6)  defines  a  ‘relevant  person’  for  the  purposes  of  subsections  (2)(f)  and  (g) as  a  person  to  whom  Article  20  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  19  of  the  EEA EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  or  Articles  17  or  20(3)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement  applies,  or  if  the  person  does  not  fall  within  these  Articles,  a  person  who has  entry  clearance  granted  by  virtue  of  relevant  entry  clearance  immigration  rules, has  leave  to  enter  or  remain  granted  by  virtue  of  residence  scheme  immigration  rules or  otherwise  has  leave  to  enter  granted  after  arriving  with  entry  clearance  granted  by virtue  of  relevant  entry  clearance  immigration  rules. 109.Subsection  (7)  provides  that  references  in  subsection  (6)(b)  to  a  person  who  has  entry clearance  or  leave  to  enter  or  remain  include  references  to  a  person  who  would  have had  entry  clearance  or  leave  to  enter  or  remain  but  for  the  making  of  a  deportation order  under  section  5(1)  of  the  Immigration  Act  1971  or  any  other  decision  made  in connection  with  restricting  the  right  of  the  person  to  enter  the  UK.
110.Subsection  (3)  of  clause  16  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  may  not provide  for  the  conferral  of  functions  (including  the  conferral  of  a  discretion)  on,  or  the delegation  of  functions  to  a  person  who  is  not  a  public  authority  (but  may  so  provide  if the  person  is  a  public  authority).

Justification  for  taking  the  power

111.There  is  a  high  level  of  technical  detail  involved  in  drafting  appeal  rights  which  will need  to  cover  a  wide  range  of  different  cohorts  and  a  variety  of  decisions.  Taking  a power  provides  scope  and  flexibility  to  make  technical  amendments,  better  suited  to being  made  by  secondary  legislation  rather  than  requiring  primary  legislation,  and  to respond  to  domestic  and  CJEU  judgments  on  the  interpretation  of  the  citizens’  rights provisions  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement.  Future  uses  of  this  power  may  arise  in  light of  evolving  interpretation  of  the  Agreements,  such  as  following  investigation  by  the IMA.  This  power  will  ensure  that  the  Government  can  respond  by  providing  for  any amendments  required  to  ensure  the  UK’s  ongoing  compliance  with  its  international obligations.

112.Taking  a  power  is  also  consistent  with  the  approach  taken  at  section  109  of  the Nationality,  Immigration  and  Asylum  Act  2002,  under  which  the  appeals  provisions
are  made  in  respect  of  a  person  who  has  or  claims  to  have  a  right  under  any  of  the  EU   Treaties.  This  is  the  power  that  was  used  to  create  the  appeal  rights  within  the  EEA   Regulations  2016.  The  scope  of  the  proposed  power  is  wider  than  that  included  in   section  109  of  the  Nationality,  Immigration  and  Asylum  Act  2002.  This  allows,  for   example,  provision  to  be  made  in  connection  with  section  3C  of  the  Immigration  Act   1971  to  ensure  leave  can  be  extended  while  an  appeal  under  the  regulations  is   pending.

113.Subsection  (4)  provides  that  regulations  under  this  section  may  modify  any  provision made  by  or  under  an  enactment,  including  primary  legislation.  Where,  for  example, the  regulations  provide  under  subsection  (1)  for  a  power  to  certify  a  decision  to  deport, subsection  (4)  will  allow  any  necessary  amendment  to  be  made  to  the  Nationality, Immigration  and  Asylum  Act  2002  regarding  the  effect  of  certification.

114.Regulations  made  under  this  power  will  have  to  comply  with  the  protections  built  into the  terms  of  the  Agreements.  Further,  the  IMA  will  oversee  the  UK’s  implementation of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  on  citizens’ rights,  including  whether  the  right  of  appeal  is  properly  legislated  for.

Justification  for  procedure

115.Paragraph  2  of  Part  1,  Schedule  5  provides  for  the  parliamentary  procedure  in  respect of  these  powers.

116.The  first  regulations  made  under  this  power  are  subject  to  the  made  affirmative procedure,  which  will  allow  the  power  to  be  exercised  so  that  regulations  made  under it  are  effective  immediately.  This  approach  is  being  taken  to  ensure  that  the  UK  is  able to  fully  comply  with  its  obligations  when  the  Agreements  come  into  force  by providing  for  the  availability  of  judicial  redress  relating  to  those  citizens’  rights immigration  decisions  which  need  to  be  in  place  from  that  date.  Under  the  made affirmative  procedure  the  regulations  will  cease  to  have  effect  unless  an  affirmative resolution  is  received  within  the  40  day  period  of  having  been  laid,  thus  ensuring Parliament  must  debate  and  approve  the  SI  to  allow  it  to  remain  in  force,  while allowing  for  operational  functionality  at  the  earliest  opportunity.

117.Any  subsequent  regulations  will  be  used  to  make  technical  amendments  and corrections,  or  where  appeal  rights  need  to  be  added  to  be  in  place  at  the  end  of  the implementation  period,  and  therefore  the  negative  resolution  procedure  will  apply  for subsequent  regulations,  unless  those  regulations  amend,  repeal  or  revoke  primary legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  in  which  case  the  draft affirmative  procedure  will  apply,  to  provide  appropriate  scrutiny  of  the  proposed   legislation.

118.There  is  precedent  for  the  approach  of  providing  regulation-­‐‑making  powers  under  the negative  procedure  for  appeals  provisions,  as  regulations  concerning  current  EEA appeals  made  under  section  109  of  the  Nationality,  Immigration  and  Asylum  Act  2002 are  made  using  the  negative  procedure.

119.The  power  does  not  provide  the  Government  with  the  ability  to  change  existing appeals  legislation  except  in  so  far  as  provision  is  made  for,  or  in  connection  with, appeals  against  citizens’  rights  immigration  decisions,  and  the  review  of  decisions  to restrict  the  entry  rights  to  the  UK  of  relevant  persons,  as  provided  for  in  the  Bill.  In  the event  that  the  power  is  used  to  amend,  repeal  or  revoke  primary  legislation  or  retained direct  principal  EU  legislation  in  subsequent  regulations,  the  draft  affirmative procedure  will  be  used.

Clause  12(1):  recognition  of  professional  qualifications

Power  conferred  on:  A  Minister  of  the  Crown,  a  devolved  authority  or  a  Minister  of  the   Crown  acting  jointly  with  a  devolved  authority
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes
Parliamentary  Procedure:  Draft  affirmative  where  amending,  repealing  or  revoking  primary   legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation;  otherwise  subject  to  the  negative   resolution  procedure.

Context  and  purpose

120.This  clause  gives  Ministers  of  the  Crown  and  devolved  authorities  the  power  to  make regulations  to  implement  Chapter  3  of  Title  II  of  Part  2  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement (Professional  Qualifications)  and  the  relevant  provisions  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation Agreement  (Article  26,  27  and  28)  and  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  (Article 23(4)  so  far  as  relates  to  recognition  of  professional  qualifications  and  all  Articles  under Part  4).

121.This  will  ensure  that  EU  citizens  and  EEA  EFTA  nationals  who  are  resident  or  frontier working  in  the  UK,  who  hold  professional  qualifications  which  have  been  recognised, or  are  in  the  process  of  being  recognised,  by  a  UK  professional  regulator  before  the  end of  the  implementation  period,  will  continue  to  have  their  qualifications  recognised  in the  UK.  The  clause  allows  these  provisions  to  be  extended  to  those  in  scope  of  the  EU Settlement  Scheme.

122.Under  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement,  Swiss  nationals  who  hold  professional qualifications  which  have  been  recognised,  or  are  in  the  process  of  being  recognised, by  a  UK  professional  regulator  before  the  end  of  the  four  year  period  following  the  end of  the  implementation  period  will  continue  to  have  their  qualifications  recognised,  so long  as  the  individual  had  obtained,  or  was  in  the  process  of  obtaining,  a  qualification before  the  end  of  the  implementation  period.  Article  23  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement  provides  that  those  providing  services  on  a  temporary  basis  from Switzerland  to  the  UK  or  from  the  UK  to  Switzerland  shall  have  the  right  to  continue to  do  so  after  the  end  of  the  implementation  period,  provided  certain  conditions  are met.

123. The  effects  of  these  recognition  decisions  will  remain  the  same  as  when  the  UK  was  a Member  State  –  for  example,  entitling  the  holder  of  the  recognition  decision  to  practise the  profession  under  the  same  conditions  as  UK  nationals  and  allowing  those  who have  been  granted  ‘partial  access’  to  a  profession  to  retain  this  status.  Article  39  of  the Withdrawal  Agreement  provides  that  this  recognition  will  be  for  the  lifetime  of  the professional.  The  equivalent  provision  is  found  at  Article  37  of  the  EEA  EFTA Separation  Agreement,  and  Article  4  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement.

124. For  the  purpose  of  this  clause,  the  devolved  authorities  are  the  Scottish  Ministers,  the Welsh  Ministers  and  Northern  Ireland  departments.

125.For  EU  citizens  and  EEA  EFTA  nationals  this  clause  applies  to  decisions  made  under UK  legislation  that  implements  the  following  provisions  of  EU  law: a. Title  III  of  Directive  2005/36/EC; b. Articles  10(1)  and  (3)  of  Directive  98/5/EC; c. Article  14  of  Directive  2006/43/EC;  and d. Council  Directive  74/556/EEC.

126.For  Swiss  nationals,  this  clause  applies  to  decisions  made  under  UK  legislation  that implements  the  following  provisions  of  EU  law: a. Title  III  of  Directive  2005/36/EC; b. Directive  98/5/EC; c. Council  Directive  77/249/EEC; d. Council  Directive  74/556/EEC;  and e. Council  Directive  86/653/EEC.

127.The  Withdrawal  Agreement  and  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  only  make provision  for  the  purposes  of  establishment,  and  not  where  recognition  was  made  for the  temporary  and  occasional  provision  of  services.  The  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights Agreement  also  makes  provision  for  the  purposes  of  establishment.  In  addition  Article 23  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  provides  that  those  providing  services  on  a temporary  basis  from  Switzerland  to  the  UK  or  from  the  UK  to  Switzerland  shall  have the  right  to  continue  to  do  so  after  the  end  of  the  implementation  period,  provided certain  conditions  are  met.  Those  in  the  scope  of  Article  23  may  continue  to  rely  upon the  Council  Directive  77/249/EEC  (which  facilitates  the  exercise  by  lawyers  of  freedom to  provide  services)  and  the  provisions  of  Title  II  of  Directive  2005/36/EC  (which concerns  the  freedom  to  provide  services  for  other  regulated  professions).

128.Subsection  (1)  provides  that  the  power  may  be  used  to  make  regulations  to  implement Chapter  3  of  Title  II  of  Part  2  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  as  well  as  to  supplement the  effect  of  section  7A  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  (inserted  by  clause  5  of  theBill)  in  relation  to  that  Chapter,  and  to  deal  with  matters  arising  out  of,  or  related  to   that  Chapter.

129.Subsection  (2)  provides  that  the  power  may  be  used  to  make  regulations  to  implement Chapter  3  of  Title  II  of  Part  2  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  as  well  as  to supplement  the  effect  of  section  7B  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  in  relation  to  that Chapter,  and  to  deal  with  matters  arising  out  of,  or  related  to  that  Chapter.

130.Subsection  (3)  provides  that  the  power  may  be  used  to  make  regulations  to  implement Article  23(4)  (so  far  as  relates  to  recognition  of  professional  qualifications)  and  Part  4  of the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  agreement,  as  well  as  to  supplement  the  effect  of  section  7B of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  in  relation  to  those  provisions,  and  to  deal  with matters  arising  out  of,  or  related  to  those  provisions.  Article  23(4)  sets  out  that  Swiss service  providers,  providing  temporary  and  occasional  services  in  regulated professions  in  accordance  with  Article  23(1)  can  continue  to  do  so.

131.Subsection  (4)  outlines  that  for  the  purposes  of  subsection  (3)  the  professional qualification  provisions  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  are  Part  4  and  Article 23(4)  (so  far  as  it  relates  to  the  recognition  of  professional  qualifications).

132.Subsection  (5)  provides  that  an  appropriate  authority  may  make  the  regulations  that apply  not  only  to  persons  within  the  scope  of  the  relevant  provisions  of  the Withdrawal  Agreement  and  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  but  also  to  persons outside  the  scope  of  those  agreements  who  have  been  granted  leave  to  enter  or  remain in  the  UK  under  the  residence  scheme  immigration  rules  (see  clause  17).

133.Subsection  (6)  provides  that  the  powers  in  subsections  (1),  (2)  and  (3)  may  be  used  to modify  any  provision  made  by  or  under  an  enactment  (as  defined  at  clause  7(1))  but subsection  (7)  provides  that  primary  legislation  passed  or  made  after  IP  completion day  is  not  caught  by  subsection  (6).

134.Subsection  (8)  defines  an  ‘appropriate  authority’  for  the  purpose  of  this  clause  as meaning,  a  Minister  of  the  Crown,  a  devolved  authority  or  a  Minister  of  the  Crown acting  jointly  with  a  devolved  authority.

135.Subsection  (9)  references  Schedule  1  which  makes  further  provision  about  the  powers of  the  devolved  authorities  to  make  regulations  under  this  clause.

136.This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  amendments  to  the  Withdrawal Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  adopted  by  the  Joint  Committee falling  within  the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is  intended  to address.

137.Subsection  (3)  of  clause  16  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  may  not provide  for  the  conferral  of  functions  (including  the  conferral  of  a  discretion)  on,  or  the delegation  of  functions  to,  a  person  who  is  not  a  public  authority  (but  may  so  provide if  the  person  is  a  public  authority).
Justification  for  taking  the  power

138.The  power  to  make  regulations  may  be  exercised  to  amend  primary  and  secondary legislation.  However,  the  power  is  limited  in  that  it  can  only  amend  primary legislation  that  relates  to  the  implementation  of  the  directives  referred  to  in  the Agreements  (see  above)  and  only  in  relation  to  persons  in  the  scope  of  the  Agreements or  those  granted  leave  to  enter  or  remain  under  residence  scheme  immigration  rules. Under  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  recognition  of  qualifications  held  by Swiss  nationals  is  not  dependent  on  individuals  being  resident  or  frontier  workers  in the  UK.

139.Amendments  will  mainly  be  technical  in  nature  to  give  effect  to  the  provisions  in  the Agreement.  The  purpose  of  any  amendments  will  be  primarily  to  facilitate  the conclusion  and  winding  up  of  the  current  system  for  recognition  of  professional qualifications.  The  power  cannot  be  exercised  to  modify  primary  legislation  passed after  the  end  of  the  implementation  period.

140.There  is  precedent  in  that  parts  of  the  Professional  Qualifications  Directive (2005/36/EC,  as  amended  by  2013/55/EU)  are  implemented  by  amendments  to  primary legislation  made  by  regulations  under  section  2(2)  of  the  ECA  (see,  for  example, European  Qualifications  (Health  and  Social  Care  Professions)  Regulations  2016,  which amends  the  Medical  Act  1983  and  the  Dentists  Act  1984).

141.The  legislation  that  needs  to  be  amended  will  include  devolved  secondary  legislation and  so  a  concurrent  power  has  been  conferred  on  the  devolved  authorities,  to  make regulations  when  it  is  within  their  competence  to  do  so.  The  UK  Government  will  not normally  use  the  power  in  areas  of  devolved  competence  without  the  agreement  of  the relevant  devolved  authority.

Justification  for  procedure

142.Where  the  power  to  make  regulations  is  used  to  modify  primary  legislation  or  retained direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the  draft  affirmative  procedure  will  apply,  otherwise the  negative  resolution  procedure  will  apply.  The  purpose  of  regulations  made  under the  negative  procedure  will  be  to  give  effect  to  the  provisions  in  the  Agreements.  The scope  of  these  provisions  is  constrained  by  the  Agreements  themselves  and  by  the   scope  of  the  power  itself.  Where  amendments  are  required  to  primary  legislation  or   retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the  draft  affirmative  procedure  is  adopted  to   provide  for  appropriate  scrutiny  of  the  proposed  legislation.  The  devolved  authorities   have  been  consulted  on  the  equivalent  scrutiny  procedures  which  apply  in  respect  of   their  exercise  of  the  power.

Clause  13(1):  coordination  of  social  security  systems

Power  conferred  on:  A  Minister  of  the  Crown,  a  devolved  authority  or  a  Minister  of  the   Crown  acting  jointly  with  a  devolved  authority
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes
Parliamentary  Procedure:  Draft  affirmative  where  amending,  repealing  or  revoking  primary   legislation,  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation;  otherwise  subject  to  the  negative   resolution  procedure.

Context  and  purpose

143.Clauses  5  and  6  will  ensure  that  EU  Regulations  883/2004  and  987/200915  which  govern social  security  coordination  will  continue  to  apply  in  domestic  law  as  provided  for  by the  Agreements.  This  includes  future  updates  to  these  Regulations,  which  will  be added  to  the  relevant  Annexes  of  the  Agreements  by  the  Joint  Committees.16  This power  is  required  to  supplement  the  effect  of  those  updates  flowing  through  clauses  5 and  6  for  those  individuals  within  scope  of  Title  III  of  Part  2  of  the  Withdrawal Agreement,  Title  III  of  Part  2  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  and  Part  Three and  Article  23(4)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement.

144.The  EU  social  security  coordination  regulations,  as  an  overarching  aim,  protect  the social  security  position  of  persons  who  have  exercised  their  free  movement  rights within  the  EU.  They  do  this  in  a  number  of  ways,  ensuring  the  equal  treatment  of  UK nationals  and  EU  citizens,  and  coordinating  the  application  of  different  Member  States’ social  security  systems  to  avoid  conflict  or  duplication.  They  also  provide  for  the aggregation  of  periods  of  work,  insurance  (National  Insurance  Contributions  (NICs)  in the  UK)  or  residence  to  help  meet  benefit  entitlement  conditions  and  for  the  payment of  certain  benefits  to  or  in  respect  of  a  person  living  in  another  Member  State  (‘export of  benefits’).

145.For  instance,  the  EU  regulations  ensure  that  a  worker  (and  their  employer)  or  a  self-­‐‑ employed  worker  are  only  required  to  pay  contributions  into  one  Member  State’s

15  EU  Regulations  1408/71  and  574/72  will  apply  to  nationals  of  third  countries  in  situations  covered  by   Title  III.  

16  Joint  Committees  established  by  Article  164  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Article  65  of  the  EEA   EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  Article  6  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement.

social  security  scheme  at  a  time  and  determines  which  Member  State  is  responsible  for   the  payment  of  benefits  and  the  cost  of  healthcare.  They  set  out  certain  rights  to   healthcare  cover  in  the  UK,  reimbursed  by  the  Member  State  responsible  for   healthcare,  and  equivalent  rights  for  healthcare  cover  in  Member  States,  reimbursed  by   the  UK.

146.These  rules  also  apply  to  the  EEA  States  via  the  EEA  Agreement,  and  Switzerland  via the  Free  Movement  of  Persons  Agreement  (FMOPA).

147.Clause  13  provides  Ministers  of  the  Crown  and  devolved  authorities  (separately  or jointly)  with  a  power  to  modify  domestic  legislation  to  implement  Title  III  of  Part  2  of the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Title  III  of  Part  2  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement, and  Part  3  and  Article  23(4)  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement.  It  will  enable Ministers  of  the  Crown  and  devolved  authorities  to  supplement  the  effect  of  the  direct application  of  these  EU  Regulations  into  domestic  law,  for  example  through remedying  any  unforeseen  inconsistencies  with  domestic  legislation  which  may  occur and  give  rise  to  unfair  treatment.  It  also  allows  Ministers  of  the  Crown  and  devolved authorities  to  make  provision  otherwise  for  the  purposes  of  dealing  with  matters arising  out  of,  or  related  to,  that  Title.  The  UK  Government  will  not  normally  use  the power  in  areas  of  devolved  competence  without  the  consent  of  the  relevant  devolved administration.  For  the  purpose  of  this  clause,  the  devolved  authorities  are  the  Scottish Ministers  and  Northern  Ireland  departments.

Social  security  in  Wales  is  a  reserved matter.

148.This  power  will  also  be  available  to  update  domestic  legislation  to  reflect  future changes  to  the  EU  Regulations  that  take  effect  in  domestic  law  under  the  Withdrawal Agreement.  This  will  ensure  that  the  UK  can  react  to  future  changes  and  continue  to meet  its  obligations  under  the  Withdrawal  Agreement.  This  will  also  allow  the  UK  to implement,  where  required,  interpretations  of  Union  law  by  the  CJEU  and  allow  the UK  to  reflect  decisions  of  the  Administrative  Commission17  that  the  UK  wishes  to accept  as  an  accurate  interpretation  of  matters  under  the  coordination  regulations.

149.Subsection  (1)  enables  an  ‘appropriate  authority’  to  make  regulations  to  implement Title  III  of  Part  2  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  to  supplement  the  effect  of  section  7A of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  (inserted  by  clause  5  of  the  Bill),  or  to  deal  with matters  arising  out  of  or  related  to  Title  III  of  Part  2  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement. Subsections  (2)  and  (3)  contain  equivalent  provisions  to  be  made  in  respect  of  Article

17  The  Administrative  Commission  is  responsible  for  dealing  with  administrative  matters  and  questions   of  interpretation  arising  from  the  provisions  of  regulations  on  social  security  coordination.  Decisions  of   the  Commission  are  not  legally  binding.

7B  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  for  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  and   Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  respectively.

150.Subsection  (4)  defines  which  provisions  in  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  are ‘social  security  co-­‐‑ordination  provisions’.

151.Subsection  (5)  states  that  the  power  to  make  regulations  under  this  section  may, among  other  things,  be  exercised  by  modifying  any  provision  made  by  or  under  an enactment  (this  is  therefore  a  so  called  ‘Henry  VIII’  power).

152.Subsection  (6)  defines  an  ‘appropriate  authority’  as  a  Minister  of  the  Crown,  a devolved  authority,  or  a  Minister  of  the  Crown  acting  jointly  with  a  devolved authority.

153.Subsection  (7)  sets  out  that  Schedule  1  contains  further  provision  on  the  use  of  these powers  by  the  devolved  authorities.

154.This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  amendments  to  the  Withdrawal Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  adopted  by  the  Joint Committees  falling  within  the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is intended  to  address.

155.Subsection  (3)  of  clause  16  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  may  not provide  for  the  conferral  of  functions  (including  the  conferral  of  a  discretion)  on,  or  the delegation  of  functions  to,  a  person  who  is  not  a  public  authority  (but  may  so  provide if  the  person  is  a  public  authority).  Regulations  that  confer  or  delegate  functions  on  a public  authority  may  require  amendments  to  existing  legislation  which  refers  to  that public  authority.  For  example,  where  ensuring  that  NHS  bodies  may  continue  to process  reciprocal  healthcare  entitlements  on  a  UK-­‐‑wide  basis.

Justification  for  taking  the  power

156.The  interaction  of  the  Agreements  with  existing  and  future  domestic  legislation  has  the potential  to  undermine  the  legal  certainty  of  individuals  rights  to  entitlements  under the  Agreements,  or  give  rise  to  unexpected  consequences  for  individuals  or  groups. There  may  be  interactions  between  the  Agreements  and  bilateral  social  security agreements  that  the  UK  may  wish  to  enter  into  in  the  future,  in  relation  to  which domestic  legislative  provision  needs  to  be  made.  The  use  of  delegated  legislation  to rectify  any  unintended  effects,  or  any  inconsistencies  in  the  domestic  statute  book,  that could  give  rise  to  unfair  treatment  will  ensure  that  the  Government  can  respond  as appropriate.  This  will  ensure  that  the  terms  of  the  Agreements  are  fully  implemented in  domestic  law  at  both  the  end  of  the  implementation  period  and  in  the  future.  The   power  is  constrained  in  that  it  may  only  be  used  in  relation  to  implementation  of  Title   III  of  Part  2  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  Title  III  of  Part  2  of  the  EEA  EFTA   Separation  Agreement  and  Part  3  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement  or  to   supplement  the  effect  of  7A  or  7B  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018  (inserted  by  clauses   5  and  6  of  the  Bill)  or  deal  with  matters  arising  out  of  those  provisions  in  the   Agreements.

157.There  will  also  need  to  be  consequential  amendments  to  the  statute  book.  The  purpose of  this  is  to  enable  departments  to  administer  obligations  under  the  EU  Regulations  via other  bodies,  such  as  arms-­‐‑length  bodies.  There  are  also  references  in  primary legislation  to  the  EU  Regulations,  which  may  have  to  be  amended  to  refer  to  section 7A  of  the  EU  (Withdrawal)  Act  2018,  or  to  Title  III  of  Part  2  of  the  Withdrawal Agreement  and  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  or  Part  3  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’ Rights  Agreement.
Justification  for  procedure

158.Where  the  power  at  clause  13(1)  (and  its  equivalents  at  subsections  (2)  and  (3))  is  used to  modify  primary  legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the  draft affirmative  procedure  will  apply.  Otherwise,  where  the  power  at  clause  13(1)  is  used  to modify  secondary  legislation,  the  negative  resolution  procedure  will  apply.  This  is because  the  anticipated  modifications  will  largely  consist  of  technical  amendments  to secondary  legislation  required  to  implement  and  ensure  compliance  with  the  social security  coordination  obligations  at  Title  III  of  Part  2  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement, Title  III  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement,  and  Part  3  of  the  Swiss  Citizens’ Rights  Agreement.  Given  the  fully  coordinated  nature  of  social  security  coordination and  that  the  power  is  tied  to  implementing  the  agreements,  there  is  very  little  scope  to make  substantial  provision  using  this  power.  However,  where  technical  amendments are  required  for  primary  legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the draft  affirmative  procedure  will  apply  to  provide  for  appropriate  scrutiny  of  the proposed  legislation.  The  devolved  authorities  have  been  consulted  and  are  content that  equivalent  scrutiny  procedures  should  apply  in  respect  of  their  exercise  of  the power.

Clause  14:  non-­‐‑discrimination,  equal  treatment  and  rights  of  workers

Power  conferred  on:  A  Minister  of  the  Crown,  a  devolved  authority  or  a  Minister  of  the   Crown  acting  jointly  with  a  devolved  authority
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes
Parliamentary  Procedure:  Draft  affirmative  where  amending,  repealing  or  revoking  primary   legislation,  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation;  otherwise  subject  to  the  negative   resolution  procedure.

Context  and  purpose

159.This  clause  makes  provision  to  ensure  that  domestic  legislation  is  compatible  with  the broad  equal  treatment  and  non-­‐‑discrimination  provisions  in  the  Agreements.  This includes  the  ability  to  make  provision  to  ensure  that  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals and  Swiss  nationals  (and  their  family  members)  currently  resident  in  the  UK  maintain existing  entitlements  to  publicly  funded  benefits  and  services  following  the  end  of  the implementation  period.  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals  and  Swiss  nationals  and their  family  members  could  otherwise  find  themselves  excluded  from  certain  benefits and  services  after  the  implementation  period  when  various  provisions  of  free movement  of  persons  are  amended  or  repealed.  Under  current  rules,  access  to  certain publicly  funded  benefits  and  services  for  EU  citizens,  EEA  EFTA  nationals,  Swiss nationals  and  their  family  members  is,  broadly  speaking,  linked  to  a  status  under  the EEA  Regulations  2016,  or  whether  claimants  have  a  right  to  reside  under  EU  law.  For example,  Regulation  2  of  the  State  Pension  Credit  Regulations  2002  makes  reference  to status  under  the  EEA  Regulations  2016,  and  amendments  will  be  required  to  ensure that  those  covered  by  the  Agreements  are  still  eligible  for  this  benefit  when  the  EEA Regulations  2016  are  repealed.

160.Under  the  current  rules,  those  with  permanent  residence  under  the  EEA  Regulations 2016  are  entitled  to  certain  benefits  and  services  on  the  same  terms  as  UK  nationals, subject  to  meeting  relevant  eligibility  criteria.

161.Where  an  individual  does  not  have  permanent  residence,  entitlement  to  these  benefits and  services  is  subject  to  eligibility  tests.  Eligibility  is  linked  to  holding  another  status under  the  EEA  Regulations  2016,  such  as  being  a  ‘qualifying  person’  (for  example,  a worker  in  genuine  and  effective  employment),  or  having  a  right  to  reside  by  virtue  of  a directly  effective  treaty  right.  This  power  will  be  used  to  save  the  operation  of  the  EEA   Regulations  2016  (which  will  be  repealed  at  the  end  of  the  implementation  period  as   part  of  the  wider  repeal  of  legislative  provisions  implementing  the  free  movement  of   persons)  and  related  domestic  law  for  the  purpose  of  preserving  access  to  benefits  and   services  based  on  the  same  conditions  as  now.
162.Subsection  (1)  confers  a  power  on  an  appropriate  authority  so  as  to  enable  it  to  make necessary  regulations  to  implement  Articles  12,  23,  24(1),  25(1),  24(3)  and  25(3)  of  the Withdrawal  Agreement.  Subsection  (2)  provides  that  the  power  may  be  used  to implement  Articles  11,  22,  23(1),  24(1),  23(3)  and  24(3)  in  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation Agreement.  Subsection  (3)  provides  that  the  power  may  be  used  to  implement  Articles 7,  18,  19,  20(1)  and  23(1)  in  the  Swiss  Citizens’  Rights  Agreement.

163.Subsection  (4)  provides  that  regulations  made  under  subsections  (1),  (2)  and  (3)  may  be made  so  as  to  apply  both  to  persons  who  are  persons  covered  by  the  relevant provisions  of  the  relevant  agreement,  as  well  as  persons  to  whom  the  provision  in question  does  not  apply  but  who  may  be  granted  leave  to  enter  or  remain  under  the residence  scheme  immigration  rules  whether  or  not  they  have  been  granted  such leave.

164.Subsection  (5)  states  that  the  power  to  make  regulations  may  be  used  to  modify  any provision  made  under  an  enactment  (as  defined  at  40(1))  (this  is  therefore  a  so  called ‘Henry  VIII’  power).

165.Subsection  (6)  defines  appropriate  authority  for  the  purposes  of  this  clause.  Subsection (7)references  Schedule  1  which  makes  further  provision  about  the  powers  of  the devolved  authorities  in  respect  of  citizens’  rights  provisions.

166.The  UK  Government  will  not  normally  use  this  power  in  areas  of  devolved competence  without  the  agreement  of  the  relevant  devolved  administration.

167.This  power  may  also  be  used  to  give  effect  to  amendments  to  the  Withdrawal Agreement,  and  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  adopted  by  the  Joint Committees  falling  within  the  scope  of  the  particular  matters  that  this  power  is intended  to  address.

168.Subsection  (3)  of  clause  16  provides  that  regulations  made  under  this  power  may  not provide  for  the  conferral  of  functions  (including  the  conferral  of  a  discretion)  on,  or  the delegation  of  functions  to,  a  person  who  is  not  a  public  authority  (but  may  so  provide if  the  person  is  a  public  authority).

Justification  for  taking  the  power

169.It  is  intended  that  provisions  of  domestic  law  that  implement  free  movement  of persons  will  be  amended  or  repealed  at  the  end  of  the  implementation  period  by  the planned  Immigration  and  Social  Security  Co-­‐‑ordination  (EU  Withdrawal)  Bill. Provision  therefore  needs  to  be  made  under  this  Bill  to  amend,  save  (and  if  necessary modify)  such  legislation  to  ensure  that  it  continues  to  comply  with  the  UK’s obligations  to  afford  equal  treatment  to  people  residing  on  the  basis  of  the Agreements.

170.This  power  will  be  used  to  ensure  continuity  of  eligibility  for  benefits  and  services. Eligibility  for  benefits  and  services  is  set  out  across  a  large  set  of  cross-­‐‑cutting legislation,  including  immigration  legislation.  The  amendments  required  to  implement equal  treatment,  non-­‐‑discrimination  and  rights  of  workers  provisions  across  this legislation  will  be  of  a  complicated  nature.  The  changes  required,  including regulations  to  define  qualifying  persons,  are  well  suited  to  secondary  legislation.

171.A  power  is  required  because  of  the  volume  of  cross-­‐‑cutting  legislation  which  links eligibility  to  benefits  and  services  with  a  person’s  nationality,  their  status  under  the EEA  Regulations  2016,  or  their  exercise  of  EU  law  rights.  The  purpose  of  the  power  is to  maintain  the  status  quo  with  regards  to  eligibility,  rather  than  to  create  new  or remove  existing  entitlements.  Maintaining  this  status  quo  will  require  a  combination  of complicated  technical  changes  which  will  be  subject  to  individual  departments eligibility  criteria.

172.There  is  also  a  requirement  for  this  power  to  operate  on  future  legislation  in  order  to give  effect  to  changes  as  domestic  interpretation  evolves,  for  example  in  response  to reports  by  the  IMA  or  litigation.  The  citizens’  rights  cohort  extends  to  future  children (and  dependent  grandchildren)  of  those  protected  by  the  Agreements,  and  so  the requirement  for  equal  treatment  stretches  far  into  the  future.  These  powers  will  ensure that  we  continue  to  be  able  to  comply  with  our  obligations.

173.Despite  the  fact  that  the  power  can  be  exercised  to  amend  primary  legislation,  any such  amendments  can  only  amend  UK  legislation  to  the  extent  it  is  appropriate  for  the purposes  of  implementing  specific  provisions  in  the  Agreements  as  well  as  for  other relevant  persons  as  defined  in  the  clause.
Justification  for  procedure

174.Where  the  powers  to  make  regulations  in  clause  14  are  exercised  to  modify  primary legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the  Bill  provides  that  the  draft affirmative  procedure  will  apply,  otherwise  they  will  be  subject  to  the  negative   resolution  procedure.  The  anticipated  amendments  will  largely  consist  of  minor  and   mechanistic  amendments  to  secondary  legislation  required  to  implement  and  ensure   compliance  with  the  equal  treatment  and  non-­‐‑discrimination  obligations  under  the   Agreements  for  example  amending  references  to  EU  instruments.  Such  amendments   will  be  subject  to  the  negative  resolution  procedure.  However,  where  amendments  are   required  to  primary  legislation  or  retained  direct  principal  EU  legislation,  the  draft   affirmative  procedure  is  applied,  to  provide  for  appropriate  scrutiny  of  the  proposed   legislation.  The  devolved  authorities  have  been  consulted  and  are  content  that   equivalent  scrutiny  procedures  should  apply  in  respect  of  their  exercise  of  the  power.

Paragraph  38(1)  of  Part  3,  Schedule  2  :  power  to  limit  the  functions  of,  or   abolish,  the  Independent  Monitoring  Authority  for  the  Citizens’ʹ  Rights   Agreements  (IMA)

Power  conferred  on:  Secretary  of  State
Power  exercised  by:  Regulations  made  by  Statutory  Instrument
Henry  VIII  power:  Yes

Parliamentary  Procedure:  Draft  affirmative

Context  and  purpose

175.The  UK  has  agreed  as  part  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  under  Article  159  for  an  IMA in  the  UK  to  monitor  the  implementation  and  application  of  the  citizens’  rights  part  of the  Withdrawal  Agreement.  It  will  be  able  to  receive  complaints  from  EU  citizens  and their  family  members  and  conduct  inquiries  concerning  alleged  breaches  of  citizens’ rights  contained  in  Part  2.

176.A  parallel  obligation  has  been  agreed  under  Article  64  of  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation Agreement.

177.As  provided  in  the  Withdrawal  Agreement,  there  is  the  possibility  for  the  UK  and  the EU  to  decide  -­‐‑  through  the  Joint  Committee  established  by  the  Withdrawal  Agreement -­‐‑  that  the  IMA’s  monitoring  role  is  no  longer  required  after  a  minimum  period  of  8 years  has  passed  following  the  end  of  the  implementation  period.  There  is  a  parallel provision  in  the  EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement.  Therefore,  this  power  makes provision  for  the  amendment  of  the  IMA’s  functions  (where  only  one  Joint  Committee has  decided  that  the  IMA  is  no  longer  needed),  or  to  end  its  operation  (in  the  case where  both  Joint  Committees  have  taken  this  decision).

Justification  for  power

178.The  establishment  of  the  IMA  is  a  requirement  of  the  Withdrawal  Agreement  and  the EEA  EFTA  Separation  Agreement  and,  accordingly,  the  body  is  being  established solely  for  the  purposes  of  complying  with  those  agreements.  In  the  circumstances where  one  or  other  of  the  relevant  Joint  Committees  (which  operate  consensually  as between  the  UK  and  the  EU  or  EEA  EFTA  states)  under  the  Agreements  determines that  the  IMA  is  no  longer  necessary,  and  thus  that  an  obligation  in  an  international   agreement  no  longer  binds  the  UK,  the  functions  of  the  IMA  can  be  modified  or   extinguished.  Reflecting  this  in  domestic  legislation  would  become  a  process  of  an   orderly  winding  down  of  the  IMA  (or  limitation  of  its  functions),  entailing  no   significant  new  policy  decisions,  but  involving  a  great  deal  of  technical  provision  such   as  that  regarding  the  treatment  of  legacy  assets  and  employees  of  the  IMA.  A  power  is   therefore  taken  for  this  purpose.

Share this article
error