Various Services

Tourism, education and health-related travel services UK trade in tourism, education and health-related travel services 241.Of the sectors covered by this inquiry, only trade in travel services falls under WTO (GATS) mode 2 (‘consumption abroad’), whereby a consumer of services travels to the location of the service provider. While a traveller is defined as a […]

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Professional Business Services

Professional business services Business services are the UK’s largest services export, accounting for 44% of all the UK’s trade in non-financial services. After financial services, they also provide the UK with its biggest trade surplus: global trade generated a surplus of £30 billion in 2015. The EU also remains a key trading partner. It is […]

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Non-Financial Services II

Frameworks for trading non-financial services 38.Unlike trade in goods, trade in services is rarely directly affected by tariffs (the duties imposed on goods entering a country), but can be significantly affected by non-tariff barriers. Non-tariff barriers include restrictions on the ability of a service provider to establish itself or operate in a different country, and […]

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Non-Financial Services

UK trade in non-financial services 15.The UK is a leading exporter of services globally, second only to the US.11 Services account for 44% of the UK’s total global exports, and the majority of services exports are in non-financial services (72%). As with goods, the EU remains a key trading partner and is the destination of […]

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Air Services

Air services Air services in the UK 202.Air services are a key part of what the ONS defines as ‘transportation services’, namely services associated with the international movement of goods (forexample, freight shipping, road haulage and air cargo) and the international movement of people (through air passenger, road and rail services).277 Imports are transportation services […]

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Digital Services

Digital services Digital services in the UK 126.The ONS measures trade in telecommunication, computer and information services, which includes trade in “computer, news agency and other information provision related service transactions”, and telecommunications services including the “broadcast or transmission of sound, images, data or other information.” In 2015, the UK had a sizeable surplus in […]

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Creative

Creative services in the UK 164.The ONS collects data on two categories of creative services trade. The first is ‘intellectual property’—payments received for the use of trademarks, design rights, and copyrighted works, including music recordings, films and television programmes. The second category is ‘personal, cultural and recreational’, which measures services and fees associated with the […]

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Broadcasting

Description of sector The broadcasting sector covers the production of audiovisual or audio (radio) content and its distribution, which is subject to the framework of regulation overseen by Ofcom (or, for TV stations based elsewhere in the European Economic Area (EEA), by another EEA regulator).5. This report primarily covers linear (or live) visual broadcasting services […]

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Automotive

Description of Sector All major global vehicle manufacturers with plants in the UK are foreign owned. In general, the business model for volume vehicle producers is to use UK sites to supply the European market (with alternative sites in Asia and the Americas supplying those markets). Investment decisions and sourcing choices are often made from […]

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Agriculture and Food

Manufacturing (including Catering, Retail and Wholesale) Sector Coverage 4. This paper covers market access and trade issues around forestry, retail, agricultural, animal and plant health, food and drink manufacturing and related biotech products. This includes: – Basic agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, milk); – Food (e.g. dairy, fish, processed products etc.); – Alcoholic beverages; – Animal […]

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Environmental Services

Description of sector The water and waste sectors provide essential infrastructure and services to homes and businesses in the UK. The Current EU Regulatory Regime Summary European legislation plays a greater role in determining the shape and size of the waste market than in water. Regulations include: – those relating to activities that have a […]

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Aviation

The current EU regulatory regime The EU aviation acquis establishes the rules which the UK has signed up to as a member of the EU internal aviation market. EU aviation rules govern three key areasand detail on these is set out below: – General internal market measures and external relations; – Safety – European Aviation […]

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Electricity and Renewables

The current EU regulatory regime Main Sector-Specific Rules Governing the Provision of this Activity in the EU The IEM provides a technical framework for the transmission, distribution and efficient trading of electricity and gas; transparency to ensure fair access to others’ networks; a regulatory co-operation mechanism; and measures to ensure security of supply and deal […]

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Fisheries

The Common Fisheries Policy UK fisheries are managed under the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). This provides for: – Shared access for EU vessels to all Member States’ waters, meaning other Member State vessels have access to UK waters and UK vessels have access to other Member State waters; – Total Allowable Catch (TAC) and quota […]

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Gas

Description of sector This paper covers the wholesale gas market, the gas transmission and distribution networks and the retail market. The current EU regulatory regime Main sector-specific rules governing the provision of this activity in the EU The Internal Energy Market (IEM) provides a technical framework for the transmission, distribution and efficient trading of electricity […]

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Insurance and Pensions

Description of sector Insurance business operates by firms writing insurance policies for clients,intermediated by brokers (which may include retail brokers and wholesale brokers and London Market brokers). Insurance firms in turn can pass on excess risk to reinsurance firms, via reinsurance brokers. Insurance underwriting requires large amounts of capital, so the industry tends to be dominated […]

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Higher Education

The current EU regulatory regime The EU has very limited competence in the area of education policy; in particular, the provision and regulation of the HE sector (including access to student finance) is a matter for Member States. Higher education policy, including on student finance, is a devolved matter and so the systems and eligibility […]

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Fintech

Description of the sector Financial Technology, or “FinTech” is not a sub-sector of financial services in the traditional sense of describing a particular activity or business model within the wider financial services market. Rather, it is a label applied to firms operating across a wide range of financial services sectors, which use new technology to […]

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Parts and Machinery

Electronics and Machinery Sector Report This report covers both the Parts and Machinery sector and the Electronics and Electrical Sector. As defined these sectors combined contribute c. £28bn to UK GVA Parts and machinery ‘Parts and Machinery’ is used to describe a discrete subset of UK manufacturing (the manufacture, installation and repair of machinery and […]

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Gambling

Description of sector In the Gambling Act 2005, gambling is defined as betting, gaming or participating in a lottery. The commercial gambling sector includes betting, arcades, casinos and bingo both land-based and online operators. Loteries can only be run for good causes and cannot be run for commercial or private gain. The current EU regulatory regime […]

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Life Sciences

Description of sector This Sectoral Report reflects 3 of the 58 listed sectors; ‘Pharmaceuticals’, ‘MedicalDevices’ and ‘Life Sciences’. Life Sciences refers to the application of biology and technology to health improvement, including biopharmaceuticals, medical technology, genomics, diagnostics and digital health. This report does not cover all health related issues; issues relating to animal and plant health […]

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Maritime and Ports

Description of sector As an island nation, the UK has been dependent on the sea for its trade and defence throughout history, and strong traditions of merchant seafaring can be traced back hundreds of years. The UK maritime sector is comprised of several distinct, but connected, sub-sectors spread across the country including: a large and […]

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Medical and Social Care

Description of the sector The market provision of medical services includes the following three sub sectors: a. The ophthalmology sub-sector, which combines provision of medical services and retail alongside provision of services to the NHS. b. The dentistry sub-sector, which provides private medical services alongside NHS services, as well as cosmetic dentistry, which is not available […]

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Nuclear

Description of Sector The UK has been a member of the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since joining the European Common Market in 1973. On 29 March 2017 the Prime Minister notified the European Commission that the UK would be leaving the European Union and consequently the Euratom Community. The Euratom Treaty, which covers civil nuclear […]

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Oil Fuels

  The Current EU Regulatory regime International rules and standards The International Energy Agency (IEA) works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 29 member countries which include most EU Member States as well as 9 others (US, Japan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Norway, Switzerland and Korea). Member countries must be members […]

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Postal Sector

The current EU regulatory regime EU Postal Services legislation stipulates that basic postal user needs are met under a Universal Service Obligation (USO) which sets minimum standards to be guaranteed by Member States and more widely across the sector. The Postal Services Act 2011 sets minimum requirements for the UK postal service, which can only be changed […]

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