UK Commons Deal Summary

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EU Q&A Introduction

Questions & Answers: EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement  Introduction The EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement covers the following areas: trade in goods and in services, digital trade, intellectual property, public procurement, aviation and road transport, energy, fisheries, social security coordination, law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, thematic cooperation and participation in Union programmes. […]

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EU Q&A Trade in Goods

TRADE IN GOODS The European Union and the United Kingdom are major trading partners. In 2019, some 13% of the EU’s total trade with third countries in goods was with the UK, whereas the UK relied on the EU for roughly half of its total trade in goods. While the UK was an EU Member […]

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EU Q&A Services & Investment

SERVICES & INVESTMENT The EU and the UK are major partners when it comes to trade in services and investment. While the UK was an EU Member State, participating in the EU Single Market and benefitting from the free movement of persons and services, businesses could supply services freely across the EU. The UK benefitted […]

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EU Q&A Digital Procurement IP & SMEs

DIGITAL TRADE, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AND SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMES)   Does the Agreement cover digital trade? The Agreement contains provisions aimed at facilitating digital trade, by addressing unjustified barriers, and ensuring an open, secure and trustworthy online environment for businesses and consumers, along with high standards of personal data protection. It notably […]

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EU Q&A Energy

ENERGY   The EU’s internal energy market ensures the security of supply of electricity, gas and oil. It also enables the free flow of energy throughout the EU based on adequate infrastructure and without technical or regulatory barriers. Within this market, EU and UK energy markets were deeply interlinked, thanks to interconnectors (electricity cables and […]

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EU Q&A Level Playing Field

LEVEL PLAYING FIELD FOR OPEN AND FREE COMPETITION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT   What is a level playing field and why is it so important? Given their geographic proximity and economic interdependence, the EU and the UK agreed to robust commitments to ensure a level playing field for open and fair competition and to contribute to […]

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EU Q&A Transport

TRANSPORT Transport is an essential driver of economic benefits in EU-UK relations. Each year, some 210 million passengers and 230 million tonnes of cargo are transported between the EU and the UK, by air, sea, road and rail. What changes on 1 January 2021? While the UK was an EU Member State and participated in […]

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EU Q&A Social Security and Visas

SOCIAL SECURITY COORDINATION AND VISAS FOR SHORT-TERM VISITS   What changes on 1 January 2021? By leaving the EU, the UK has chosen to put an end to the free movement of persons between the EU and the UK as of 1 January 2021. All movements after 1 January 2021 will be subject to the […]

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EU UK Q&A Fishing

FISHERIES  The economic value of fisheries in UK waters for EU vessels represents 637m EUR[8]. This represents on average 12% of Member States’ overall total catches in value – although this varies significantly among Member States, ranging from less than 1% for Spain to 33% for Denmark, 38% for Ireland and 43% for Belgium. Conversely, […]

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EU Q&A Law and Security

  SECURITY, LAW ENFORCMENT AND JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS   Ensuring the safety and security of both the EU’s and UK’s citizens against common and evolving threats such as cross-border crime, cybercrime and terrorism remains a shared priority of the EU and the UK. This requires effective and swift cooperation, data sharing and analysis. […]

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EU Q&A Cooperation and Participation

THEMATIC COOPERATION  There are further topics on which the EU and the UK agreed that it was in their mutual interest to continue a close cooperation in the future, notably: health security, cybersecurity and information security.  Health Security International cooperation is crucial to protect the health of populations across borders, as evidenced most recently by […]

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EU Q&A Governance

GOVERNANCE   The Agreement does not just include a free trade agreement underpinned by commitments to ensure a level playing field, but also provisions on transport, energy, fisheries, law enforcement and judicial cooperation, health security, cyber-security and social security. A horizontal institutional framework is therefore necessary to govern and enforce all aspects of the Agreement. […]

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General UK Summary

Trade and Cooperation Agreement: Overview The United Kingdom and the European Union have agreed to unprecedented 100% tariff liberalisation. This means there will be no tariffs or quotas on the movement of goods we produce between the UK and the EU. This is the first time the EU has agreed a zero tariff zero quota […]

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Trade in Goods UK Summary

Heading 1 – Trade Title I – Trade in Goods Chapter 1 – National treatment and market access for goods (including trade remedies) The Agreement establishes zero tariffs or quotas on trade between the UK and the EU, where goods meet the relevant rules of origin. The Chapter includes provisions which reaffirm, incorporate and build […]

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Regulation and Services UK Summary

Title II – Trade in Services and Investment The Agreement establishes the treatment and level of access the UK and EU have agreed to grant each other’s service suppliers and investors. These provisions will offer businesses and individuals the certainty and support they need to continue trading profitably with the EU, while maintaining the UK’s […]

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Level Playing Field UK Summary

Title XI: Level playing field for open and fair competition and sustainable development The Agreement’s provisions in this area, implementing commitments made in the 2019 Political Declaration, were the subject of considerable controversy during the negotiations. The EU was forced to drop its ambitious demands for dynamic alignment and for the UK to be legally […]

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Sectors UK Summary

Heading Two – Aviation Title I – Air transport The Agreement builds on existing precedent and sets out the arrangements for the operation of air transport services between the UK and the EU. UK airlines that are majority owned and controlled by UK and/ or EU/EEA/EFTA nationals at the end of December 2020 may continue […]

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Justice Cooperation UK Summary

Part 3 – Law Enforcement and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters The safety and security of our citizens is the Government’s top priority. The Agreement provides a comprehensive package of operational capabilities that will help protect the public and bring criminals to justice. Title I – General provisions The scope of this Part, as set […]

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Programmes and Cooperation UK Summary

Part 4 – Thematic Cooperation The agreement provides for future cooperation between the UK and EU on emerging challenges, including health and cyber security. The UK and EU have also agreed a joint declaration noting the importance of effectively managing migratory flows, and the UK’s intention to engage in bilateral discussion with key EU Member […]

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Disputes and General UK Summary

Part 6 – Dispute Settlement and Horizontal Provisions Title I: Dispute settlement This Agreement includes dispute resolution mechanisms that are appropriate for a relationship between sovereign equals. This means that there is no role for the Court of Justice of the European Union. All these mechanisms are fully reciprocal and equally available to both parties. […]

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