Hard Brexit

Overview Still the default option Both under EU and UK law Due to take effect on 31st October 2019 Parliament seems opposed EU seems determined to avoid Involves a sudden big bang one time changes Numerous laws and trading rules change overnight Immediate customs duties Immediate customs processes and obligations Immediate regulatory controls Immediate cessation […]

Read More

Revoke Remain

Overview The UK may unilaterally withdraw the notice to leave The UK remains in the EU All laws remain the same Preserves all existing trade agreements Political implications Legitimacy issues A second referendum likely to be necessary Likely continuing debate about the relationship Right to Revoke The European Union has confirmed that up to the […]

Read More

Withdrawal Agreement Ratified

Overview Withdrawal Agreement approved by EU &  UK Government Rejected by Parliament three times and PM May resigned WA or variant may be ratified No deal Brexit on 31 October 2019 unless agreement or extension Deals only with Money, People, Transition and Backstop Accompanied by Political Declaration about Future Relationship Agreement on UK Financial Contribution to […]

Read More

Backstop (Unapproved Withdrawal Agreement)

Overview Contained in the unapproved Withdrawal Agreement Agreed by the EU and the UK Government Withdrawal Agreement rejected three times by Parliament A variant of it may be agreed Applies if future EU UK Agreement does not avoid NI hard border Applies if no EU UK Agreement at end Transition Period 2020 (+?) EU and […]

Read More

Customs Partnership

Overview The Labour Party policy No customs duties, customs controls nor origin checks Limited scope to enter trade agreements with third countries Greater power to regulate economic activity Level playing field rules/regulatory alignment No / very limited single market protections Broad cooperation in important fields Limited freedom to provide services Facilitation of digital services A […]

Read More

Single Market and Customs Union

Overview Back to 1992 (more or less) Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein status Plus customs union No customs duties No declarations of origin or customs control No/ very limited freedom to enter trade agreements The UK largely a rule-taker of many trade rules Free movement of goods Free movement workers (plus other categories?) Free movement of […]

Read More

Single Market

Overview; Membership of the EEA Same relationship as Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein No customs duties on most goods Some Customs cooperation Declarations required for exports and imports UK freedom to enter trade agreements with third countries More extensive trade agreements v less EU alignment/harmonisation The UK becomes a rule-taker for many trade rules No / […]

Read More

Free Trade Agreement

Overview The UK Government’s preferred option Reflected in the EU UK future relationship declaration No customs duties on most goods Customs cooperation but declarations required on exports and imports Certificates of origin requirements Some regulatory checks The UK free to enter trade agreements with third countries – Higher alignment with the EU = reduced scope […]

Read More