Future Trading Declaration (22 Nov 2018)

Subject Political declaration setting out the framework for the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom Delegations1 will find in the Annex the Political declaration setting out the framework for the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom. This declaration has been agreed at negotiators’ level and agreed in […]

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Proposed Trade Policy (UK White Paper)

Independent trade policy The UK’s proposal for its future economic partnership with the EU would provide a strong foundation for the UK to establish a broad and ambitious independent trade policy with the rest of the world. As the UK leaves the EU, the Government is committed to ensuring that UK and EU businesses and […]

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Context and General Issues

New Free Trade Agreement The UK’s declared intention is to leave the EU single market and EU customs union. The UK government White Paper of 2nd February 2017 confirms that the UK will not be seeking membership of the single market but will pursue, instead and start a new strategic partnership with the EU including […]

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Goods and Services

Customs Union Goods  and Regulation The general level of customs tariff is relatively low on average; approximately four per cent. Quotas are restricted in trade between WTO parties. Agricultural goods are subject to exceptions. Preferential quotas and tariffs subject to quotas may be negotiable in relation to agricultural products. Tariff-free access for goods to the EU […]

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Various Other FTA Matters

Areas Covered As well as covering trade in goods and services, free trade agreements commonly cover a range of other issues as technical and non-tariff barriers to trade health and welfare provisions, custom and trade facilitation, subsidies competition and trade monopolies, investment, temporary entry of persons, recognition of qualifications, communications, financial services, procurement, intellectual property, […]

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Investment Protection

TRIMs The Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement provides that the Member States shall not apply trade-related investment measures which are inconsistent with the national treatment requirement or the prohibition of quantitative restrictions. There are a number of illustrative trade measures (expand on this using earlier dictations on international matters). Existing trade-related investment measures are to be […]

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EU’s Existing Trade Agreements

UK’s Trade Status Post Brexit Existing EU free trade agreements cover 53 markets and one-third of the world’s economy. A specific issue is the possible loss of preferential access to those markets through trade agreements. The UK may be required to negotiate new bilateral agreements with those countries in some cases. This is necessary to […]

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Preferential Trade Agreements

Preferential Trade Agreements. Preferential Trade Agreements are treaties between states giving preferential access to each other’s domestic market. They may be multilateral or bilateral. They are commonly regional in scope, such as the EU and NAFTA agreements. Preferential agreements are permissible under GATT rules provided that trade restrictions are eliminated on most trade between the […]

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World Trade and Intellectual Property

Older Conventions and TRIPS The Paris Convention 1883 provides for a national treatment principle. It does not set any minimum standard for patents. State party states are obliged to accept trademarks properly registered in the country of registration. The Berne Convention 1885 provides for a national treatment principle and most favourite nation principle. It provided […]

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Environmental Issues

World Environmental Issues Many environmental issues are cross border in nature. Low environmental standards in one state may have an adverse effect on other states. Some environmental concerns are of a worldwide nature, including, the impact of Greenhouse gas emissions. There may be shared natural resources such as water and air bodies adjacent to national […]

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