EU / Switzerland

Background Switzerland narrowly rejected EEA membership in 1992. It also rejected EU membership in  1997 and 2001 by large margins. Switzerland’s participation in the EU / EEA internal market has been effected on an ad hoc  and partial basis through bilateral agreements with the EU. The current Swiss EU agreement consists of more than 200  […]

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EEA / EFTA

EFTA Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland and UK concluded the EFTA agreement in 1960. Its primary purpose was to liberalise trade in goods without pursuing the political integration objectives of the European Economic Communities; the EEC.  Finland joined in 1961 followed by Iceland in 1970 and Liechtenstein in 1991. Ultimately, all of these states joined […]

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Operation of EEA

Product Requirements Free movement of goods implies that products that conform to the applicable EU/EEA rule can circulate freely in the Internal Market. Obstacles to cross-border trade are called technical barriers to trade (TBT). Harmonisation of technical requirements removes barriers to cross-border trade. In order to significantly reduce TBT, the EU has adopted harmonised product […]

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Ukraine DCFTA

Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements The European neighbourhood policy seeks to provide comprehensive agreements with countries which politically are not in the position to join the EU whether for geopolitical or economic reasons. It promotes EU values in relation to human rights, the rule of law, democracy, market economy, sustainable development, labour protection, et […]

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CETA The EU-Canada Trade Agreement

Trade in Goods The recently concluded Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement with Canada was negotiated over an eight-year period. The EU-Canada agreement further liberalises trade in almost all sectors. It eliminates tariffs on all industrial products, 90 percent of agricultural products and 66% of fisheries produce. The agreement increases tariff rate quotas for agricultural and […]

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EU-Japan Economic Partnership

Tariffs- Trade in Goods Market Access Japan will liberalise 91% of its imports from the EU at entry into force. At the end of the staging period 99% of its imports from the EU will be liberalised, while the remaining imports (1%) will be partly liberalised through quotas and tariff reductions (in agriculture). In terms […]

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Turkey-EU Customs Union

Overview The existing EU-Turkey bilateral preferential trade framework (BPTF) dates from 1995 and has become outdated in view of the deep and comprehensive free trade agreements (DCFTAs) that the EU has since concluded or is negotiating with other economic partners, including the EU-Korea Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), […]

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